The Scientific Method
The difference between science from knowledge is that science tests is "facts."
The basic procedure that all scientist follow is the scientific method.
This test must have a FALSIFIABLE CONCEPT and is able to be proved incorrect.
It also must deal with only observable objects and events.
Control - the standard from which the experiment operates, this differs from
the test group only by the test factor
Independent variable - the thing that the scientist controls to find the
Dependent variable - the place where the scientist is looking for the reaction
This step is commonly overlooked. Here is where the hypothesis is accepted
Types of reasoning
inductive - derives a generalization from a particular example
deductive - uses a generalization to form a predition in a particular example
what is the main distinguishing factor that science has?
Why test the hypothesis?
What kind of reasoning is the scientific meathod?
Does science, like math, have a basic assumption? What kind of reasoning
requires that some assumptions be made?
Defined as the study of living things
especially their properties
What are some of the features of living things?
Why does it have these features?
How do these structures work?
Properties of living things (extended example on hydroids p12-16)
a notable exception is viruses
receives stimulus and adapts to the change
homeostasis at the organism level
maintains a certain state
for example body temperature, acid base levels, water levels
allows the body to function
study of the structure of the body
study of the function of the body
study of relationships with the environment
Themes of (text)
especially the transfer of it in an ecosystem
Given that biology studies life and the biology is a science, why then does
biology include the mere classification of organisms which is not a strict
The big question, what is life? Has been answered in this section. Is this
answer scientifically provable? If it is not scientifically provable then
why study biology? (Note this may tie into the earlier question that does
science have postulates or axioms?)
see diagram in rough notes -- dated 9-7
consists of eyepiece (standard 10x magnification) and nosepiece that has
many lenses from (10 to 100 magnification)
magnification is determined by multipling both the magnifications of the
nose and eye pieces
50 000 times
atom force scope
can see individual atoms
use computer analysis
250 000 times
Investigate the WOW FACTOR of scientist who use the equipement for the first
Is this list limited in any way? Find an ingenious way of using a non traditional
tool in a biological investigation (or make up a hypothetical use).
smallest unit of matter that still retains chemical properties of its element.
SLAC deals with smaller stuff
sub proton neutron is
moves so fast that it appears solid
size of an atom.
Hypothetically the nucleus is an orange placed in the middle of a stadium.
The first electrons of the atom are orbiting outside of the stadium.
Why does biology depend on the study of atoms?
Research or name a well-documented atomic level biological analysis. Theorize
why there are no more atomic quanitifications in the various biological fields.
defined by the number of protons
neutrons are variable
The variations are called isotopes.
These are chemically identical except for weight and stability
for example hydrogen, deuterium, tritium are isotopes of hydrogen, with 0,
1, and 2 neutrons respectively.
Name several major elements that deal with life.
Hypothesize or guess or dream up an answer why there cannot be life based
on the boron atom or any other atom other than carbon.
Definition: Two or more atoms combined together (can change chemical properties)
For example: O2, H2O, CO2
Combine for stability
Types of Bonds
the favorite bond of organic compounds
one gives one takes electrons
becomes two ions that attract each other
for example: NaCl
Brain and muscles use ions
conducts electricity only when melted
1 valence (outer shell) electron
The nuclei stay put and electrons go in waves
free electrons allow electron conduction, reflection, and heat conduction
nuclei can slip (malleable)
Types of Compounds:
Defining Characteristic: Has one or less carbon atoms
For example: O2 is needed by living organisms to burn food, but it is not
Contrasting Example: Glucose (C6H12O6) + O2 H2O + CO2 + Energy
For example: Carbon Dioxide; Photosynthesis reverses the process above using
inorganics to form organic Glucose
Inorganic Organic Connection: Water; all living things need because:
high specific heat
chemical reaction medium
transport other junk
slight polarity dissolves junk
forms weak hydrogen bonds with junk
usually non-metal w. Unlike atoms
INORGANIC REVIEW QUESTIONS:
Name some inorganic compounds that living things need?
Why do you think that carbon determines organicness?
carbon important cause bonds to itself and others easily
formula same, but 3d different ISOMERS
macromolecule protien, uses carbon. Forms a POLYMER (a long chain)
has similar sub parts that are linked together (MONOMERS)
formed by condesation- take water from H and OH ends and connect
destroyed by hydrolysis - put water, break, H and OH ends
Carbo (carbon) hydrates (dihydrogen oxide = water) a.k.a. sugar
2H per O2 and C
simple sugar monosaccharide
Glucose (Isomers C6H12O6)
differ only by different bonds
for example starch
cellulose (chain link fence)
chitin - shells of insects and crabs
more c&h less 0
for example beef fat C37H110O6
insoluble (non polar) in water
basic part is triglyceride has 3 carbons that link with fatty acids
storage of food
phopholipid - part of cell membrane
double ring molecule
used in many metabolic compounds
made of 20 basic amino acids
basic structure compounds
each has a specific 3D shape formed by 4 steps
primary structure - specific order of amino acids
secondary structure - 200-500 amino acids with cross links
tertinary structure - spirals and folding
quaternary structure - join with other similar tertinary structures
also makes enzymes - something that speeds up chemical reations (used
in almost all metabolic processes)
condensation removes HOH and forms a PEPTIDE BOND (p180) [from the COOH and
transport oxygen - hemoglobin (4 O2's)
STRUCTURE NUCLEIC ACIDS
DNA - Deoxyribonucleaic Acid
RND - Ribonucleaic Acid
info stored in code (nucleotides)
Thymine (in RNA Uracil)
DNA info for enzymes and protiens
RNA copy for DNA for protien synthesis
Extra info: AZT (AIDS Drug) is a nucleotide
What is the difference between carbos and lipids? They both store energy!
Explain the following terms: Monomer, polymer, hydrolysis, condesation. And
name examples of each.
a combination of substances where each substance retains its own properties
defined as: where one thing is equally concentrated in the other (distributed)
solute is dissolvéd
living things must regulate (concentration) so that certain reaction occur
Acids and Bases
H+ concentration higher than balenced
"any substance that increases the hydro ion concentration"
OH- concentration higher than balenced
"any substance that increases the hyrdoxyl ion concentration"
pH is importat to living things because reactions occur in different placed,
for example stomach and integestines, must happen at the proper pH level.
Chemical reactions (in living things)
called metabolism (see types of cmpds, inorganic for an example)
ATP - Adenosine TriPhosphate - Basic unit of energy - used in chemical reactions
that require energy (endergonic)
ADP - Adenosine DiPhosphate - converted to ATP by reations that create energy
Units of energy
Calories (prefered in this course)
Activation Energy - small amt of energy needed to start a chemical reaction