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Kenneth Kang
10/5/95
Biology

Biology Notes

Yango 1995

The Scientific Method

The difference between science from knowledge is that science tests is "facts." The basic procedure that all scientist follow is the scientific method.

Question

Research

Hypothesis

Experiment

This test must have a FALSIFIABLE CONCEPT and is able to be proved incorrect. It also must deal with only observable objects and events.

Control - the standard from which the experiment operates, this differs from the test group only by the test factor

Independent variable - the thing that the scientist controls to find the reaction

Dependent variable - the place where the scientist is looking for the reaction

Conclusion

This step is commonly overlooked. Here is where the hypothesis is accepted or rejected.

Types of reasoning

inductive - derives a generalization from a particular example

deductive - uses a generalization to form a predition in a particular example

REVIEW QUESTIONS

what is the main distinguishing factor that science has?

Why test the hypothesis?

What kind of reasoning is the scientific meathod?

Does science, like math, have a basic assumption? What kind of reasoning requires that some assumptions be made?

Biology

Defined as the study of living things

especially their properties

Questions include:

What are some of the features of living things?

Why does it have these features?

How do these structures work?

Properties of living things (extended example on hydroids p12-16)

growth

a notable exception is viruses

adaptation

a.k.a. behavior

receives stimulus and adapts to the change

movement

organized structure

metabolism

eat

breathe

excrete

use chemicals

homeostasis at the organism level

maintains a certain state

for example body temperature, acid base levels, water levels

allows the body to function

Areas of

molecular biology

biotech

microbiology

bacteria

viruses

zoology

botany

anatomy

study of the structure of the body

physiology

study of the function of the body

ecology

study of relationships with the environment

marine biology

medicine

Themes of (text)

energy

especially the transfer of it in an ecosystem

interaction (ecology)

homeostasis

evolution

REVIEW QUESTIONS

Given that biology studies life and the biology is a science, why then does biology include the mere classification of organisms which is not a strict science?

The big question, what is life? Has been answered in this section. Is this answer scientifically provable? If it is not scientifically provable then why study biology? (Note this may tie into the earlier question that does science have postulates or axioms?)

Tools

microscopes

see diagram in rough notes -- dated 9-7

consists of eyepiece (standard 10x magnification) and nosepiece that has many lenses from (10 to 100 magnification)

magnification is determined by multipling both the magnifications of the nose and eye pieces

scanning scopes

electron

50 000 times

atom force scope

can see individual atoms

use computer analysis

250 000 times

REVIEW QUESTIONS

Investigate the WOW FACTOR of scientist who use the equipement for the first time.

Is this list limited in any way? Find an ingenious way of using a non traditional tool in a biological investigation (or make up a hypothetical use).

atom

smallest unit of matter that still retains chemical properties of its element.

SLAC deals with smaller stuff

Parts of

nucleus

proton

positive

neutron

neutral

sub proton neutron is

quarks
gluons

electron cloud

negative charge

moves so fast that it appears solid

size of an atom.

Hypothetically the nucleus is an orange placed in the middle of a stadium. The first electrons of the atom are orbiting outside of the stadium.

REVIEW QUESTIONS

Why does biology depend on the study of atoms?

Research or name a well-documented atomic level biological analysis. Theorize why there are no more atomic quanitifications in the various biological fields.

Elements

defined by the number of protons

neutrons are variable

The variations are called isotopes.

These are chemically identical except for weight and stability

for example hydrogen, deuterium, tritium are isotopes of hydrogen, with 0, 1, and 2 neutrons respectively.

REVIEW QUESTIONS

Name several major elements that deal with life.

Hypothesize or guess or dream up an answer why there cannot be life based on the boron atom or any other atom other than carbon.

Molecules

Definition: Two or more atoms combined together (can change chemical properties)

For example: O2, H2O, CO2

Combine for stability

Types of Bonds

Covelent bonds

share electrons

the favorite bond of organic compounds

Ionic Bond

one gives one takes electrons

becomes two ions that attract each other

for example: NaCl

Brain and muscles use ions

conducts electricity only when melted

brittle lattice

light adsorbed

Metalic Bond

1 valence (outer shell) electron

The nuclei stay put and electrons go in waves

free electrons allow electron conduction, reflection, and heat conduction

nuclei can slip (malleable)

Types of Compounds:

Inorganic:

Simple Molecules

Defining Characteristic: Has one or less carbon atoms

For example: O2 is needed by living organisms to burn food, but it is not organic

Contrasting Example: Glucose (C6H12O6) + O2 H2O + CO2 + Energy

For example: Carbon Dioxide; Photosynthesis reverses the process above using inorganics to form organic Glucose

Inorganic Organic Connection: Water; all living things need because:

high specific heat
chemical reaction medium
universal solvent
transport other junk
slight polarity dissolves junk
forms weak hydrogen bonds with junk

Polarity

usually non-metal w. Unlike atoms

INORGANIC REVIEW QUESTIONS:

Name some inorganic compounds that living things need?

Why do you think that carbon determines organicness?

Organic Molecules

carbon important cause bonds to itself and others easily

formula same, but 3d different ISOMERS

macromolecule protien, uses carbon. Forms a POLYMER (a long chain)

has similar sub parts that are linked together (MONOMERS)

formed by condesation- take water from H and OH ends and connect

destroyed by hydrolysis - put water, break, H and OH ends

STRUCTURE CARBOHYDRATES

Carbo (carbon) hydrates (dihydrogen oxide = water) a.k.a. sugar

2H per O2 and C

simple sugar monosaccharide

fructose

Glucose (Isomers C6H12O6)

double disaccharide

larger polysaccharide

differ only by different bonds

for example starch

glycogen

cellulose (chain link fence)

chitin - shells of insects and crabs

STRUCTURE LIPIDS

more c&h less 0

for example beef fat C37H110O6

insoluble (non polar) in water

basic part is triglyceride has 3 carbons that link with fatty acids

used for

insulation

storage of food

padding

types

phopholipid - part of cell membrane

steroid

double ring molecule

used in many metabolic compounds

STRUCTURE PROTIEN

made of 20 basic amino acids

basic structure compounds

each has a specific 3D shape formed by 4 steps

primary structure - specific order of amino acids

secondary structure - 200-500 amino acids with cross links

tertinary structure - spirals and folding

quaternary structure - join with other similar tertinary structures

also makes enzymes - something that speeds up chemical reations (used in almost all metabolic processes)

condensation removes HOH and forms a PEPTIDE BOND (p180) [from the COOH and NH2 groups]

transport oxygen - hemoglobin (4 O2's)

STRUCTURE NUCLEIC ACIDS

DNA - Deoxyribonucleaic Acid

RND - Ribonucleaic Acid

cmplx macromole

info stored in code (nucleotides)

Nucleotides

Adenine

Cytosine

Guinine

Thymine (in RNA Uracil)

DNA info for enzymes and protiens

RNA copy for DNA for protien synthesis

Extra info: AZT (AIDS Drug) is a nucleotide

REVIEW QUESTIONS

What is the difference between carbos and lipids? They both store energy!

Explain the following terms: Monomer, polymer, hydrolysis, condesation. And name examples of each.

Mixtures

a combination of substances where each substance retains its own properties

Solutions

defined as: where one thing is equally concentrated in the other (distributed)

solvent dissolves

solute is dissolvéd

living things must regulate (concentration) so that certain reaction occur

Acids and Bases

Acid

H+ concentration higher than balenced

pH's [0,7)

"any substance that increases the hydro ion concentration"

Base

OH- concentration higher than balenced

pH's (7,14]

"any substance that increases the hyrdoxyl ion concentration"

pH

logrithmatic

WHY? Because

pH is importat to living things because reactions occur in different placed, for example stomach and integestines, must happen at the proper pH level.

Chemical reactions (in living things)

called metabolism (see types of cmpds, inorganic for an example)

ATP - Adenosine TriPhosphate - Basic unit of energy - used in chemical reactions that require energy (endergonic)

ADP - Adenosine DiPhosphate - converted to ATP by reations that create energy (exergonic)

Units of energy

Joules (SI)

Calories (prefered in this course)

Activation Energy - small amt of energy needed to start a chemical reaction