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Kenneth Kang

Wednesday, June 25, 1997

Final Draft

Chemistry Notes Semester 2

  • Chapter 13 Ionic Bonds 1
  • Chapter 14 Covalent Bonds 2
  • Chapter 15 Water and Aqueous Systems 4
  • Chapter 16 Properties of solutions 5
  • Chapter 25 Hydrocarbon Compounds 6
  • Chapter 26 Functional Groups and Organic Reactions 7
  • Chapter 17 Reaction Rates and Equilibrium 9
  • Chapter 18 Acids and Bases 10
  • Chapter 19 Neutralizaiton and Salts 11
  • Chapter 20 Oxidation--Reduction Reactions 11
  • Chapter 24 Nuclear Chemistry 12
  • Index 14
  • Chapter 13 Ionic Bonds


    Term                 Definition                                                  
    
    Valence              the electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an    
    ElectronsValence     element's atom                                              
    Electrons                                                                        
    
    isoelectronicisoelec two ions that share an electron shell configuration         
    tronic                                                                           
    
    Electron dot         a depiction of valence electrons as dots drawn around the   
    structuresElectron   symbol of the element                                       
    dot structures                                                                   
    
    octet ruleoctet      Atoms react by changing the number of their electrons so    
    rule                 as to acquire the stable electron structure of a noble      
                         gas.                                                        
    
    anionanion           negatively charged ion                                      
    
    cationcation         positively charged ion                                      
    
    halied ionshalied    the Ions that form from group 7A                            
    ions                                                                             
    
    ionic bondbondionic  forces of attraction that bind opposite charged ions        
                         together                                                    
    
    coordination         the number of ions of opposite charge that surround each    
    numbercoordination   ion in a crystal                                            
    number                                                                           
    
    metallic             consist of the attraction of the free-floating valence      
    bondbondmetallic     electrons for the positively charged metal ions             
    
    
    

    Table 1: Chapter 13 Terms

    1. Example: Combining Sodium and Chlorine
      1. Following II.A., Sodium gives up an electron, the easiest way. It now looks like Neon.
      2. Following II.A., Chlorine picks up an electron. It now looks like Argon.
    2. Methods
      1. All elements want to have 8 electrons in their outer shell. They now look like a noble gas (isoelectronic). They still have a different proton numbers.
      2. Silver and other post transition metals can have pseudo noble-gas electron shell by ditching the highest s level.
    3. Bonds
      1. Metallic Bonds
        1. ductile - able to be pushed through a hole
        2. malleable - able to be bent
        3. crystalline
        4. Positive ions are surrounded by a sea of flowing electrons.
          1. Allows heat to transmit
          2. Reflects light
      2. Ionic Bond
        1. forms crystals
        2. not ductile or malleable
        3. not good heat or electricity conductors
        4. fractures because the ions can't really slide past another
        5. doesn't reflect because the electrons aren't free enough

    Chapter 14 Covalent Bonds


    Term                    Definition                                               
    
    structure               chemical formulas that show the arrangement of atoms in  
    formulastructure        molecules and polyatomic ions                            
    formula                                                                          
    
    single covalent         formed when a pair of electrons is shared between two    
    bondbondsingle          atoms                                                    
    covalent                                                                         
    
    unshared pairsunshared  the pairs of valence electrons that are not shared       
    pairs                   between atoms                                            
    
    double covalent         two shared pairs of electrons                            
    bondbonddouble                                                                   
    covalent                                                                         
    
    triple covalent         three shared pairs of electrons                          
    bondbondtriple                                                                   
    covalent                                                                         
    
    coordinate covalent     when one atom contributes both bonding electrons in a    
    bondbondcoordinate      covalent bond                                            
    covalent                                                                         
    
    resonanceresonance      when two or more equally valid electron dot structures   
                            can be written for a molecule                            
    
    paramagneticparamagneti a substance that shows a relatively strong attraction    
    c                       to an external magnetic field                            
    
    molecular               the overlapping atomic orbitals of two covalently        
    orbitalmolecular        bonded atoms                                             
    orbital                                                                          
    
    bonding orbitalbonding  a molecular orbital whose energy is lower than that of   
    orbital                 the atomic orbitals from which it is formed              
    
    antibonding             a molecular orbital whose energy is higher than that of  
    orbitalantibonding      the atomic orbitals from which it is formed              
    orbital                                                                          
    
    sigma bondbondsigma     a bonded orbital that is symmetriacal along the axis     
                            connecting the two nuclei                                
    
    pi bondbondpi           a sausage-shaped region above and below the bond axis    
    
    tetrahedral             109.5°                                                   
    angletetrahedral angle                                                           
    
    VSEPR theoryVSEPR       because electrons paires repel, molecules adjust so      
    theory                  that the valence-electron are as far apart as possible   
                            (valence-shell electron-pair repulsion)                  
    
    hybridizationhybridizat several atomic orbitals mix to form the same number of   
    ion                     equivalent hybrid orbitals                               
    
    nonpolar covalent       a bond where electrons are shared equall y               
    bondbondnonpolar                                                                 
    covalent                                                                         
    
    polar covalent          a bond of two unlike atoms where electrons are hogged    
    bondbondpolar covalent  by one of them                                           
    
    polar bondbondpolar     the same as a polar covalent bond                        
    
    polar moleculepolar     one end is slightly negative and the other end is        
    molecule                slightly positive                                        
    
    dipoledipole            a molecule with two poles                                
    
    bond dissociation       the energy required to break a single bond               
    energybonddissociation                                                           
    energy                                                                           
    
    van der Waals           all weak attractions between molecules                   
    forcesvan der Waals                                                              
    forces                                                                           
    
    dispersion              weakest of all molecular interactions-thought to be      
    forcesdispersion        caused by the motion of electrons                        
    forces                                                                           
    
    dipole                  polar molecules' attraction to one another               
    interactionsdipole                                                               
    interactions                                                                     
    
    hydrogen                attractive forces in which hydrogen that is covealently  
    bondbondhydrogen        bonded to a very electronegative atom in the same        
                            molecule or a nearby molecule                            
    
    network solidsnetwork   stable substances whose atoms are all covalently bonded  
    solids                  to each other                                            
    
    
    

    Table 2: Chapter 14 Terms

    1. Electrons
      1. The Aufbau diagram pushes one of the 2s electron up to the 2p level. They become hybridized and look like one level. All atoms have a hybridized electron state. These states are nomally named sp, sp2, and sp3 where the superscript is one less than the number of orbitals availible. See hybrid state.
      2. These are equal bonds and make a tetrahedral shape as a result of equal shape.
    2. Covalent Bond
      1. In CH4 compound, the electrons are shared, forming a covalent bond.
      2. The electron is counted for both atoms.
      3. For polyatomic ions, you can bring or take away electrons to get the charge and bond effectively.
      4. There are the sigma bonds. They can lose energy (bonding orbital). The sigma drops below the levels. The sigma star bond gains energy so it is an antiboding orbital.
      5. Carbon become de-hybridized to form pi bonds.
    3. Paramagnetic
      1. Diamagnetic is non magnetic.
      2. Caused by unpaired electrons
      3. Oxygen, an octet rule exception, is paramagnetic
    4. Hybrid States
      1. CH4 is tetrahedral with sp3.
      2. H2O is bent triatomic with sp3.
      3. sp2: occurs when there is a pi bond (trigonal planar)
      4. sp: occurs when there are two pi bonds (linear triatomic)
      5. spd4(not testable): occurs when the d sublevel gets hybridized
      6. PCl5: considered an exception
      7. Triagonal bipyramidal occurs with spd4 (not testable).
    5. Polar Bonds
      1. The molecule if asymetric and electronegativity is different, then they are polar.
      2. To test for polar bonds, microwave it (It realigns the polar molecules rapidly).
      3. Dipolar means that there are only two poles.

    Chapter 15 Water and Aqueous Systems


    Terms             Definition                                                     
    
    surface           the inward force or pull which tends to minimize the surface   
    tensionsurface    area of a liquid                                               
    tension                                                                          
    
    surfactantssurfac decreases surface tension (SURFace ACtive AgeNTS)              
    tants                                                                            
    
    aqueous           water samples containing dissolved solids                      
    solutionsaqueous                                                                 
    solutions                                                                        
    
    solventsolvent    the dissolving medium                                          
    
    solutesolute      the dissolved particles                                        
    
    solvationsolvatio a solute dissolving                                            
    n                                                                                
    
    effloresceefflore when a hydrate, with a higher vapor pressure than water,       
    sce               loses the water of hydration                                   
    
    water of          water in a crystal                                             
    hydrationwater                                                                   
    of hydration                                                                     
    
    hygroscopichygros compounds that remove moisture from air                        
    copic                                                                            
    
    desiccantsdesicca hydgroscopic substances that are used as drying agents         
    nts                                                                              
    
    deliquescentdeliq compounds that remove sufficiant water from the air to         
    uescent           dissolve and form solutions                                    
    
    electrolyteselect compounds that conduct an ellectric current in aqueous         
    rolytes           solution or molten state                                       
    
    nonelectrolytesno coumpouds that do not conduct an electric current in aqueous   
    nelectrolytes     solution or the molten state                                   
    
    weak              a solution where only a fraction of the solute exists as ions  
    electrolyteelectr                                                                
    olyteweak                                                                        
    
    strong            a large portion of the solute exists as ions when dissolved    
    electrolyteelectr                                                                
    olytestrong                                                                      
    
    suspensionssuspen mixtures from which some of the particles will settle slowly   
    sions             upon standing                                                  
    
    colloidscolloids  mixtures containing particles that are intermediate in size    
                      between those of suspensions and true solutions                
    
    Tyndall           the scattering of visible light in all directions              
    effectTyndall                                                                    
    effect                                                                           
    
    Brownian          the chaotic movement of collodial particles                    
    motionBrownian                                                                   
    motion                                                                           
    
    emulsionsemulsion colloidal dispersion of liquids in liquids                     
    s                                                                                
    
    
    

    Table 3: Chapter Terms

    1. Solutions
      1. homogeneous and stable

    Chapter 16 Properties of solutions


    Terms                  Definition                                                
    
    saturated              a solution conting the maximum amount of solute for a     
    solutionsaturated      given amount of solvent at a constant temperature         
    solution                                                                         
    
    solubilitysolubility   the amount of substance that dissolves in a given         
                           quantity of solvent at a given temperature to produce a   
                           saturated solution                                        
    
    unsaturatedunsaturated a solution that contains less solute than a saturated     
                           solution                                                  
    
    misciblemiscible       two liquids that dissolve each other                      
    
    immiscibleimmiscible   liquids that are insoluble in one another                 
    
    Henry's LawHenry's     at a given temperature, the solutbility of a gas in a     
    Law                    liquidis directly proportional to the pressure of the     
                           gas above the liquid                                      
    
    supersaturated         a solution which containes more solute than it can        
    solutionsupersaturated theoretically hold at a given temperature                 
     solution                                                                        
    
    concentrationconcentra a measure of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a  
    tion                   given quantity of solvent                                 
    
    dilute solutiondilute  a solution that contains only a small amount of solute    
    solution                                                                         
    
    concentrated           a solution that contains a large amount of solute         
    solutionconcentrated                                                             
    solution                                                                         
    
    molaritymolarity       the number of moles of a solute dissolved in 1 L of       
                           solution                                                  
    
    colligative            properties that depend on the number of dissolved         
    propertiescolligative  particles of a given mass of solvent                      
    properties                                                                       
    
    boiling point          the difference in temperature between the boiling points  
    elevationboiling       of a solution and of the pure solvent                     
    point elevation                                                                  
    
    freezing point         the difference in temperature between the freezing        
    depressionfreezing     points of a solution and of the pure solvent              
    point depression                                                                 
    
    molalitymolality       the numnber of moles of solute dissolved in 1 kilgram of  
                           solvent                                                   
    
    mole fractionmole      the ratio of the moles of solute in solution to the       
    fraction               total number of moles of both solvent and solute          
    
    molal boiling point    (Kb of Tb = Kbm ) the change in boiling point for a 1     
    elevation              molal solution of a nonvolatile molecular solute          
    constantmolal boiling                                                            
    point elevation                                                                  
    constant                                                                         
    
    molal freezing point   the change in the freezing point for a 1 molal solution   
    depression             of a nonvolatile molecular solute                         
    constantmolal                                                                    
    freezing point                                                                   
    depression constant                                                              
    
    
    

    Table 4: Chapter 16 Terms

    1. Rate of Solvation
      1. Agitation
      2. Temperature
      3. Particle SizeThese Chapters have been hidden because we skipped them.

    Chapter 25 Hydrocarbon Compounds


    Terms                      Definition                                            
    
    alkanesalkanes             hydrocarbons that contain only single covalent bonds  
    
    continuous chain           contain any number of carbon atoms in a straight      
    alkanescontinuous chain    chain                                                 
    alkanes                                                                          
    
    homologous                 constant increament of change in molecular structure  
    serieshomologous series    from one compound in the series to the next           
    
    condensed structural       diagrams which leave out some bonds and atoms from    
    formulacondensed           the structural formula                                
    structural formula                                                               
    
    IUPAC SystemIUPAC System   the system of naming organic compounds                
                               (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry)   
    
    substituentsubstituent     an atom or a group of atoms that can take the place   
                               of a hydrogen atom on a parent hydrocarbon molecule   
    
    alkyl groupalkyl group     a hydrocarbon substituent                             
    
    branced chain              an alkane with one or more alkyl groups               
    alkanebranced chain                                                              
    alkane                                                                           
    
    hydrocarbonshydrocarbons   organic compounds that contain only carbon and        
                               hydrogen                                              
    
    structural                 compounds that have the same molecular formula but    
    isomersstructural isomers  different molecular structures                        
    
    unsaturated                organic compound containing double and triple         
    compoundsunsaturated       carbon-carbon bonds                                   
    compounds                                                                        
    
    alkenesalkenes             organic compounds containing carbon-carbon double     
                               bonds                                                 
    
    alkynesalkynes             organic compounds containing carbon-carbon triple     
                               bonds                                                 
    
    trans configurationtrans   where the substituted groups are o opposite side s    
    configuration              of the double bond                                    
    
    cis configurationcis       where the substitued groups are on the smae side of   
    configuration              the double bond                                       
    
    geometric                  where compounds differ only in the geometry of their  
    isomersgeometric isomers   substituted groups                                    
    
    asymmetric                 a carbon with four different groups attached          
    carbonasymmetric carbon                                                          
    
    stereoisomersstereoisomers molecules of the same molecular structure that        
                               differ only in the arrangement of the atoms in space  
    
    cyclic hydrocarbonscyclic  caompounds that contain a hydrocarbon ring            
    hydrocarbons                                                                     
    
    aliphatic                  all hydrocarbons compounds which do not contain       
    compoundsaliphatic         rings                                                 
    compounds                                                                        
    
    arenesarenes               unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons                       
    
    aromatic compoundaromatic  any substance in whic the bonding is like that of     
    compound                   benzene                                               
    
    crackingcracking           a controlled process by which hydrocarbons are        
                               broken down or rearranged into smaller, more useful   
                               molecules                                             
    
    
    

    Table 5: Terms

    1. Naming procedure
      1. Find longest chain
      2. Number the chain elements
      3. Add names of substituent groups and identify their positions
      4. Use prefixes to indicate number of occurances of each group
      5. List names in alphabetical order
      6. Use proper punctuation

    Chapter 26 Functional Groups and Organic Reactions


    Term             Definition                                                      
    
    functional       a specific arrangement of atoms in an organic compound that is  
    groupfunctional  capable of characteristic chemical reaction                     
    group                                                                            
    
    halocarbonshaloc a class of organic compounds containing covalently bonded       
    arbons           fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine                          
    
    alkyl            halocarbons in which a halogen is attached to a carbon of an    
    halidesalkyl     aliphatic chain                                                 
    halides                                                                          
    
    aryl             halocarbons in which a halogen is attached to a carbon of an    
    halidesaryl      arene ring                                                      
    halides                                                                          
    
    substitutionsubs the replacement of an atom or group of atoms by another atom    
    titution         or group of atoms                                               
    
    alcoholalcohol   organic compounds with ah -OH group                             
    
    hydroxyl         the -OH group in alcohols                                       
    grouphydroxyl                                                                    
    group                                                                            
    
    fermentationferm the production of ethanol from sugars by the action of yeast    
    entation         or bacteria                                                     
    
    denatured        ethanol with an added substance to make it toxic                
    alcoholdenatured                                                                 
     alcohol                                                                         
    
    addition         a substance is added at the double or triple bond of an alkene  
    reactionaddition or alkyne                                                       
     reaction                                                                        
    
    hydration        the addition of water to an alkene                              
    reactionhydratio                                                                 
    n reaction                                                                       
    
    hydrogenation    hydrogen is added to a carbon-carbon double bond to give an     
    reactionhydrogen alkane                                                          
    ation reaction                                                                   
    
    carbonyl         carbon atom and an oxygen atom joined by a double bond          
    groupcarbonyl                                                                    
    group                                                                            
    
    aldehydesaldehyd organic compounds in which the carbonyl group is always joined  
    es               to at lease one hydrogen: RCHO                                  
    
    ketonesketones   organic compounds in which the carbon of the carbonyl group is  
                     joined to two other carbons: RCOR                               
    
    carboxylic       compounds with a carboxyl group                                 
    actidscarboxylic                                                                 
     actids                                                                          
    
    carboxyl         a carbonyl group attached to a hydroxyl group                   
    groupcarboxyl                                                                    
    group                                                                            
    
    fatty            contiuous chain carboxylic acids                                
    acidsfatty                                                                       
    acids                                                                            
    
    esthersesthers   compounds in which oxygen is bonded to two carbon groups:       
                     R-O-R                                                           
    
    dehydrogenation  the loss of hydrogen                                            
    reactiondehydrog                                                                 
    enation                                                                          
    reaction                                                                         
    
    Benedict's       used for aldehyde detection                                     
    testBenedict's                                                                   
    test &                                                                           
    Fehling's                                                                        
    testFehling's                                                                    
    test                                                                             
    
    estersesters     derivatives of carboxylic acids in which the -OH of the         
                     carboxyl group has been replaced by an -OR from an alcohol      
    
    polymerpolymer   a large molecule formed by the covalent bonding of repeating    
                     smaller molecules                                               
    
    monomersmonomers molecules tha t combine top form the repeating unit of a        
                     polymer                                                         
    
    carbohydratecarb monomers and polymers of aldehydes and ketones that have        
    ohydrate         numerous hydroxy groups attached                                
    
    monosaccharidesm simplest carbohydrate molecules, simple sugars                  
    onosaccharides                                                                   
    
    disaccharidesdis sugars which are formed from two monosaccharides                
    accharides                                                                       
    
    polysaccharidesp the linkage of many monosaccharide monomers                     
    olysaccharides                                                                   
    
    lipidlipid       a larg class of relatively water-insoluble compound that        
                     includes fats, oils, and waxes                                  
    
    waxeswaxes       esters of long-chain fatty acides and long-chain alcohols       
    
    triglyceridestri triesters of long chain fatty acids and glycerol                
    glycerides                                                                       
    
    saponificationsa hydrolysis of oils or fats by boiling them with aqueous sodium  
    ponification     hydroxide, making soap                                          
    
    amino acidamino  a compound whch contains amino (-NH4) and carboxylic acid       
    acid             (-COOS) groups in the same molecule                             
    
    zwitterionszwitt internal salts of amino acids                                   
    erions                                                                           
    
    peptidepeptide   any combination of amino acids in which the amino group of one  
                     acid is united with the carboxylic acid group of another        
    
    peptide          the bond between the carbonyl rgoup of one amino acid and the   
    bondpeptide      nitrogen of the next amino acid in the peptide chain            
    bond                                                                             
    
    polypeptidepolyp any peptide with more than ten amino acid residues              
    eptide                                                                           
    
    proteinprotein   a peptide with more than about 100 amino acids                  
    
    nucleic acids    polymers found primarily in cell nuclei                         
    
    nucleotides      monomers that make up DNA and RNA                               
    
    
    

    Table 6: Terms

    Chapter 17 Reaction Rates and Equilibrium


    Term                   Definition                                                
    
    reaction ratereaction  the number of atoms, ions or molecules that react in a    
    rate                   give time to form products                                
    
    activation             the minumum energy colliding particles must have in       
    energyactivation       order to react                                            
    energy                                                                           
    
    activated              the arrangement of atoms at the peak of the activation    
    complexactivated       energy barrier                                            
    complex                                                                          
    
    transition             the activated complex                                     
    statetransition state                                                            
    
    heterogeneous          reactions carred out with heterogeneous miztures of       
    reactionsheterogeneous reactants                                                 
     reactions                                                                       
    
    inhibitorinhibitor     a substance that interferes with catalysis                
    
    rate lawrate law       e.g.                                                      
    
    specific rate          a proportinality constant relating the concetration of    
    constantspecific rate  reactants to the rate of reaction                         
    constant                                                                         
    
    first-order            the reaction rate is proporional to the concentration of  
    reactionfirst-order    only one reactant                                         
    reaction                                                                         
    
    elementary             reactants are concerted to products in a single step      
    reactionelementary                                                               
    reaction                                                                         
    
    reaction               all of the elementarty reactions of a complex reaction    
    mechanismreaction                                                                
    mechanism                                                                        
    
    intermediateintermedia a product of areaction that immediate becomes a reactant  
    te                     of another reaction                                       
    
    law of disorderlaw of  things move spontaneously in the direction of maximum     
    disorder               chaos or disorder                                         
    
    entropyentropy         the measure of disorder of a system                       
    
    standard of            the substance at a stable state at 25 °C and 1 atm        
    entropystandard of                                                               
    entropy                                                                          
    
    spontaneous            reactions that are known to produce the written products  
    reactionspontaneous                                                              
    reaction                                                                         
    
    non-spontaneous        do not give products under the specified conditions       
    reactionsnon-spontaneo                                                           
    us reactions                                                                     
    
    free energyfree        the energy availible to do work when a reaction occurs    
    energy                                                                           
    
    exergonicexergonic     spontaneous reactions that release free energy            
    
    endergonicendergonic   nonspontaneous reactions that absorb free energy          
    
    Gibbs free energy,     is the maximum amount of energy that can be coupled to    
    change inGibbs free    another process to do useful work                         
    energy, change in                                                                
    
    reversible             the conversion of reactants into products and the         
    reactionreversible     conversion of products into reactants occur               
    reaction               simultaneously                                            
    
    chemical               when the forward and backward reactions are taking place  
    equilibriumchemical    at the same rate                                          
    equilibrium                                                                      
    
    equilibrium            the relative concentration of the reactants and products  
    positionequilibrium    at equilibrium                                            
    position                                                                         
    
    equilibrium            Keq, the ratio of product concentrations to reactant      
    constantequilibrium    concentrations with each concentration raied to the       
    constant               power given by the number of moles of that substance in   
                           the balanced chemical equation                            
    
    Châtelier's            If a stress is applied to a system in a dynamic           
    principleChâtelier's   equilibrium, the system changes to relive the stress      
    principle                                                                        
    
    
    

    Table 7: Chapter 17

    The kinetic theory of reaction / matter is where the particles have to collide with enough energy against each other. Reaction rates are affected by temperature, concentration, particle size, and catalysts.

    Chapter 18 Acids and Bases


    Term                        Definition                                           
    
    hydroxide ionhydroxide ion  OH-                                                  
    
    hydronium ionhydronium ion  H3O+                                                 
    
    self-ionizationself-ionizat the reaction in which two water molecules react to   
    ion                         give ions                                            
    
    neutral solutionneutral     any aqueous solutio in which the H+ and the OH-      
    solution                    concentrations are 1.0  10-7 mol / L                 
    
    ion-product constant for    the product of concetrations of the hydrogen ions    
    waterion-product constant   and hydroxide ions in water                          
    for water                                                                        
    
    acidic solutionsacidic      the H+ concentration is greater than the OH-         
    solutions                   concentration                                        
    
    basic solutionsbasic        the H+ concentration is less than the OH-            
    solutions                   concentration                                        
    
    alkaline solutionsalkaline  same as basic solutions                              
    solutions                                                                        
    
    *pH                         the negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion           
                                concentration                                        
    
    monoprotic acid             any acid that containese one ionizable hydrogen      
    
    diprotic acid               any acid that contains two ionizable protons         
    
    triprotic acid              any acid that containes three ionizable protons      
    
    hydrogen-ion donor          the Brønstead-Lowry theory's acid                    
    
    hydrogen-ion acceptor       the Brønstead-Lowry theory's base                    
    
    conjugate acid              the particle formed when a base gains a hydrogen     
                                ion                                                  
    
    conjugate base              the particle formed when an acid has donated a       
                                hydrogen ion                                         
    
    conjugate acid-base pair    two substances that are related by the loss or gain  
                                of a single hydrogen ion                             
    
    amphoteric                  a substance that can act as both an acid and a base  
    
    Lewis acid                  a substance that can accept a pair of electrons to   
                                form a covalent bond                                 
    
    Lewis base                  a substance that can donate a pair of electrons to   
                                form a covalent bond                                 
    
    weak acids                  acids that ionize only slightly in aqueous solution  
    
    acid dissociation constant  the ratio of the concentration of the dissociated    
                                form of an acid to the undissociated form            
    
    strong bases                bases that dissociate completely into metal ions     
                                and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution               
    
    strong acids                acids that completely ionize in aqueous solution     
    
    weak bases                  bases that do not dissociate completely in aqueous   
                                solution                                             
    
    base dissociation constant  the ratio of the concentration of the dissociated    
                                form of a base to the undissociated form             
    
    
    

    Table 8: Chapter 18

    Chapter 19 Neutralizaiton and Salts


    Terms                Definition                                                  
    
    neutralization       reactions bin which an acid and a base react in an aqueous  
    reaction             solution to produce a slat and water                        
    
    standard solution    the solution of known concentration                         
    
    end point            the point at which neutralization is acheived               
    
    titration            the addition of a known amount of solutoin to determine     
                         the volume or concentration of another solution             
    
    equivalentequivalent the amount of an acid or base that will give one mole of    
                         hydrogen or hydroxide ions                                  
    
    gram equivalentgram  the mass of one equivalent of a substance                   
    equivalent                                                                       
    
    normalitynormality   the concentration expressed as the number of equivalents    
                         of solute in 1 L of solution                                
    
    equivalence          the point of neutralization                                 
    pointequivalence                                                                 
    point                                                                            
    
    salt hydrolysissalt  the cation or anions of the dissociated salt accept         
    hydrolysis           hydrogen ions from water or donate hydrogen ions to water   
    
    buffersbuffers       solutions in which the pH remains relatively constant when  
                         small amounts of acid or base are added                     
    
    buffer               the amount of acid or base that may be added to a buffer    
    capacitybuffer       solution before a significant change in pH occurs           
    capacity                                                                         
    
    solutbility product  the product of the concentration terms each raised to the   
    constantsolutbility  power of the coefficient of the substance in the            
    product constant     dissociation equation                                       
    
    common ioncommon     an ion that is common to both salts                         
    ion                                                                              
    
    common ion           the lowering of the solubility of a substance by the        
    effectcommon ion     addition of a common ion                                    
    effect                                                                           
    
    
    

    Table 9: Chapter 19

    Chapter 20 Oxidation--Reduction Reactions


    Term                        Definition                                           
    
    oxidation--reduction        the chemical changes that occur when electrons are   
    reactionsoxidation--reducti transferred between reactants                        
    on reactions                                                                     
    
    redox reactionsredox        oxidation--reduction reactions                       
    reactions                                                                        
    
    oxidationoxidation          -the combination of an element with oxygen           
                                -loss of electrons                                   
    
    reductionreduction          -the loss of oxygen from a compound                  
                                -gain of electrons                                   
    
    reducing agentreducing      the substance in a redox reaction that donates       
    agent                       electrons                                            
    
    oxidizing agentoxidizing    the substance in a redox reaction that accepts       
    agent                       electrons                                            
    
    oxidation numberoxidation   a positive or negative number assiggned to an atom   
    number                      according to a set of arbitrary rules                
    
    oxidation number change     a redox equation is balanced by comparing the        
    methodoxidation number      increases and decreases in oxidation number          
    change method                                                                    
    
    half-reaction               the method used to balance redox equations by        
    methodhalf-reaction method  balancing oxidation and reduction half-reactions     
    
    half-reactionhalf-reaction  an equation showing either the reduction or the      
                                oxidation of a species in an oxidation-reduction     
                                reaction                                             
    
    
    

    Table 10: Chapter 20

    Chapter 24 Nuclear Chemistry


    Terms                Definition                                                  
    
    radioactivityradioac the process by which uranium gives off rays                 
    tivity                                                                           
    
    radiationradiation   the penetrating rays emmited by a radioactive substance     
    
    radioisotopesradiois certain isotopes that have unstable nuclei                  
    otopes                                                                           
    
    radioactive          the process by which an unstable nucleus loses energy by    
    decayradioactive     emitting radiation                                          
    decay                                                                            
    
    alpha                helium nuclei                                               
    radiationalpha                                                                   
    radiation                                                                        
    
    alpha                two protons and two neutraons which have a double postive   
    particlesalpha       charge.                                                     
    particles                                                                        
    
    beta raditationbeta  fast moving electrons                                       
    raditation                                                                       
    
    gamma                electromagnetic radiation                                   
    radiationgamma                                                                   
    radiation                                                                        
    
    band of              neutron v proton plot                                       
    stablityband of                                                                  
    stablity                                                                         
    
    positronpositron     a particle with the mass of an electron but a postive       
                         charge                                                      
    
    half-lifehalf-life   the time required for one-half of the atoms of a            
                         radioisotope to emit radition and decay to products         
    
    transmutationtransmu the conversion of an atom of one element to an atom of      
    tation               another element                                             
    
    transuranium         the elements in the periodic table with atomic numbers      
    elementstransuranium above 92                                                    
     elements                                                                        
    
    fissionfission       the splitting of a nucleus into smaller fragments           
    
    neutron              a method to slow down neutrons so that they can be          
    moderationneutron    captured by the reactor fuel to continue the chain reactio  
    moderation                                                                       
    
    neutron              decreases the number of slow neutrons                       
    absorbtionneutron                                                                
    absorbtion                                                                       
    
    fusionfusion         two nuclei combining to produce a nucleus of heavier mass   
    
    ionizing             radiation that knocks electrons off some atoms of the       
    radiationionizing    bombarded substance to produce ions                         
    radiation                                                                        
    
    geiger               a gas-filled metal tube to detect radiation                 
    countergeiger                                                                    
    counter                                                                          
    
    scintillation        a phosphor used to detect radiation                         
    counterscintillation                                                             
     counter                                                                         
    
    film badgefilm       several layers of photo graphic film covered with black     
    badge                lighproof paper encased in a plastic or metal holder        
    
    
    

    Table 11:

    Index

    acidic solutions, 10

    activated complex, 9

    activation energy, 9

    addition reaction, 7

    alcohol, 7

    aldehydes, 8

    aliphatic compounds, 7

    alkaline solutions, 10

    alkanes, 6

    alkenes, 6

    alkyl group, 6

    alkyl halides, 7

    alkynes, 6

    alpha particles, 12

    alpha radiation, 12

    amino acid, 8

    anion, 1

    antibonding orbital, 3

    aqueous solutions, 4

    arenes, 7

    aromatic compound, 7

    aryl halides, 7

    asymmetric carbon, 7

    band of stablity, 12

    basic solutions, 10

    Benedict's test, 8

    bent triatomic, 4

    beta raditation, 12

    boiling point elevation, 5

    bond

    coordinate covalent, 2

    covalent, 3

    dissociation energy, 3

    double covalent, 2

    hydrogen, 3

    ionic, 1, 2

    metallic, 1, 2

    nonpolar covalent, 3

    pi, 3

    polar, 3

    polar covalent, 3

    sigma, 3

    single covalent, 2

    triple covalent, 2

    bonding orbital, 2

    branced chain alkane, 6

    Brownian motion, 5

    buffer capacity, 11

    buffers, 11

    carbohydrate, 8

    carbonyl group, 7

    carboxyl group, 8

    carboxylic actids, 8

    cation, 1

    Châtelier's principle, 9

    chemical equilibrium, 9

    cis configuration, 6

    colligative properties, 5

    colloids, 5

    common ion, 11

    common ion effect, 11

    concentrated solution, 5

    concentration, 5

    condensed structural formula, 6

    continuous chain alkanes, 6

    coordination number, 1

    cracking, 7

    cyclic hydrocarbons, 7

    dehydrogenation reaction, 8

    deliquescent, 4

    denatured alcohol, 7

    desiccants, 4

    Diamagnetic, 4

    dilute solution, 5

    dipole, 3

    dipole interactions, 3

    disaccharides, 8

    dispersion forces, 3

    ductile, 2

    effloresce, 4

    electrolyte

    strong, 5

    weak, 5

    electrolytes, 4

    Electron dot structures, 1

    elementary reaction, 9

    emulsions, 5

    endergonic, 9

    entropy, 9

    equilibrium constant, 9

    equilibrium position, 9

    equivalence point, 11

    equivalent, 11

    esters, 8

    esthers, 8

    exergonic, 9

    fatty acids, 8

    Fehling's test, 8

    fermentation, 7

    film badge, 13

    first-order reaction, 9

    fission, 12

    free energy, 9

    freezing point depression, 5

    functional group, 7

    fusion, 13

    gamma radiation, 12

    geiger counter, 13

    geometric isomers, 7

    Gibbs free energy, change in, 9

    gram equivalent, 11

    half-life, 12

    half-reaction, 12

    half-reaction method, 12

    halied ions, 1

    halocarbons, 7

    Henry's Law, 5

    heterogeneous reactions, 9

    homologous series, 6

    Hybrid States, 4

    hybridization, 3

    hybridized electron state, 3

    hydration reaction, 7

    hydrocarbons, 6

    hydrogenation reaction, 7

    hydronium ion, 10

    hydroxide ion, 10

    hydroxyl group, 7

    hygroscopic, 4

    immiscible, 5

    inhibitor, 9

    intermediate, 9

    ionizing radiation, 13

    ion-product constant for water, 10

    isoelectronic, 1, 2

    IUPAC System, 6

    ketones, 8

    kinetic theory, 10

    law of disorder, 9

    linear triatomic, 4

    lipid, 8

    malleable, 2

    miscible, 5

    molal boiling point elevation constant, 6

    molal freezing point depression constant, 6

    molality, 6

    molarity, 5

    mole fraction, 6

    molecular orbital, 2

    monomers, 8

    monosaccharides, 8

    network solids, 3

    neutral solution, 10

    neutron absorbtion, 12

    neutron moderation, 12

    nonelectrolytes, 5

    non-spontaneous reactions, 9

    normality, 11

    octet rule, 1

    oxidation, 12

    oxidation number, 12

    oxidation number change method, 12

    oxidation--reduction reactions, 11

    oxidizing agent, 12

    paramagnetic, 2, 4

    peptide, 8

    peptide bond, 8

    polar molecule, 3

    polymer, 8

    polypeptide, 8

    polysaccharides, 8

    positron, 12

    protein, 8

    radiation, 12

    radioactive decay, 12

    radioactivity, 12

    radioisotopes, 12

    rate law, 9

    reaction mechanism, 9

    reaction rate, 9

    redox reactions, 12

    reducing agent, 12

    reduction, 12

    resonance, 2

    reversible reaction, 9

    salt hydrolysis, 11

    saponification, 8

    saturated solution, 5

    scintillation counter, 13

    self-ionization, 10

    solubility, 5

    solutbility product constant, 11

    solute, 4

    solvation, 4

    Rate of, 6

    solvent, 4

    specific rate constant, 9

    spontaneous reaction, 9

    standard of entropy, 9

    stereoisomers, 7

    structural isomers, 6

    structure formula, 2

    substituent, 6

    substitution, 7

    supersaturated solution, 5

    surface tension, 4

    surfactants, 4

    suspensions, 5

    tetrahedral, 4

    tetrahedral angle, 3

    trans configuration, 6

    transition state, 9

    transmutation, 12

    transuranium elements, 12

    Triagonal bipyramidal, 4

    triglycerides, 8

    trigonal planar, 4

    Tyndall effect, 5

    unsaturated, 5

    unsaturated compounds, 6

    unshared pairs, 2

    Valence Electrons, 1

    van der Waals forces, 3

    VSEPR theory, 3

    water of hydration, 4

    waxes, 8

    zwitterions, 8