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Kenneth Kang

Wednesday, June 25, 1997

Final Draft

English Notes Semester 2

  • "Additions" 1
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn -- Mark Twain 2
  • Map 8
  • Satire 10
  • A Modest Proposal -- Swift 10
  • That Lean and Hungry Look -- Jordan, Suzanne Britt 11
  • A Theory of the Paragraph 11
  • "The Outcasts of Poker Flat" 12
  • Regionalism 13
  • "The Open Boat" 13
  • The Modern Age, 1915-1946 14
  • The Great Gatsby 14
  • Class 15
  • Class Story Presentations 18
  • Faulkner 18
  • O'Conner 19
  • Donald Barthelme 19
  • Ernest Hemingway 19
  • Bernard Malamud 21
  • Updike 21
  • Ann Beattie 21
  • Index 21
  • "Additions"

    1. What is this thingy?
      1. start with a statement that could be a sentence itself
      2. with the simple use of a comma the writer has adde to the initial sentence
      3. base clause and additions
      4. additions are not just decoration, they add detail to the general base clause
      5. often carry weight of the sentence meaning
    2. What does it do?
      1. power of detail
      2. use a string of additions or one
      3. placement - usually follow base but sometimes precede or interrupt it
      4. dense texture v. Thin
      5. phrasal modifiers and thus it can be misplaced
    3. Kinds of "Additions"
      1. Verb Phrase - distinguished by a gerund (verb: -ing)
      2. Absolutes - a subject and a verb (-ing); "zoom lens"
      3. Noun Phrase - enumeration of subobjects; static
      4. Adjective Phrase - enumeration of traits
      5. Prepositional Phrase - obvious and intuitive

    Verb Phrase                       Absolute                                  
    He was walking, pacing back and   He was walking, his pen bouncing up and   
    forth.                            down.                                     
    He sat, eagerly anticipating his  He sat, his uniform shimmering....        

    Table 1: Class Examples

    The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn -- Mark Twain

    1. Widow Douglas wanted to civilize Huckleberry Finn
    2. Sister to Douglass - Miss Watson, keeps saying "don't"
    3. Spider for company - Chapter 2
    4. Slave Jim - hunts around and itches then kills Tom's plan to tie him to a tree
    5. Nigger stereotype
    6. Forms a blood pact gang - kills family of those who squeal (Huck's "family" = Miss Watson)
    7. steals and murders; makes plans for ransoming - Chapter 3 - spiritual gifts
    8. robber
    9. invunerable (magic)
    10. Chapter 4 - bearing with school
    11. gives away the money ($6000) (Judge Thatcher - guardian)
    12. father comes (Jim's philosophy - 2nd to last paragraph)
    13. Chapter 5 - Father doesn't like the civilization
    14. He wants the money
    15. Judge Thatcher tries for custody
    16. Chapter 6 - Dad got drunk with some money, takes off to Illinois
    17. Liked living in woods - locked up - will win, but trial takes a long time
    18. He would get drunk and Huck escape (Pap complains about government custody thing)
    19. Pap blames government and free blacks (6 months to freedom, pre civil war)
    20. Sleeps and Pap sees snakes
    21. Chapter 7 - gets up to start breakfast (setting June)
    22. brings in a drift canoe
    23. escapes
    24. camps out
    25. drifts down river
    26. Chapter 8 - too lazy to cook - finds loaves
    27. Everyone goes to the river
    28. He likes the woods
    29. People come - leave
    30. finds Jim, thinks he's dead, munches together
    31. Both are running off from Miss Watson
    32. Jim's escape Story
    33. Jim's wealth
    34. Jim Swindled - Chapter 9 - Survey the island
    35. Setup camp
    36. grabs stuff off the river including house
    37. Pillages house
    38. Chapter 10 - snake bite and superstitions
    39. Gets huge fish and dresses like a girl
    40. Talks with lady (60 Judith Loftus)
    41. Tells Huck Finn story
    42. Threads needle, name problem
    43. Throws lead at a rat
    44. Find out about "George Peters" (Huck)
    45. Escapes
    46. Chapter 12 - Raft improvements and camp
    47. Gets food at towns
    48. Steamboat wreck
    49. Steamboat argument
    50. More arguing
    51. Chapter 13 - get away from the steamboat
    52. Pillages the skiff that they used for the get away
    53. talks
    54. about family
    55. passes the wreck
    56. Chapter 14 - talks about kings and dukes
    57. Solomon & French
    58. talk like animals
    59. Chapter 15 - head to free territory
    60. lost in fog
    61. Finds Jim again
    62. A dream
    63. Chapter 16 - go to shore
    64. guilt about Miss Watson
    65. Jim's plans - white talk of 5 nigger escape
    66. 2 guys come, think "pap"'s got small pox
    67. help slave hide - not Cairo
    68. needs canoe
    69. raft destoyed
    70. people find him
    71. search for Shepherdson
    72. talks with boy (Buck)
    73. about the house
    74. Art and books
    75. suicidal painting
    76. Emmeline, poet about the dead
    77. Chapter 18 - Col. Grangerford
    78. aristocracy
    79. feud
    80. Grangerford v Shepherdson
    81. messanger
    82. meet Jim & raft
    83. Miss Sophia ran off
    84. ambush
    85. two dead
    86. Chapter 19 - live on river
    87. going down river
    88. other guys in trouble
    89. credentials
    90. noblity
    91. other guy claims nobility
    92. liars! - Chapter 20 - make up story
    93. they boss Huck around
    94. "King" & "Duke" lounge around
    95. setup for Romeo & Juliet
    96. finds shed
    97. takes over preacher's time
    98. prints phoney stuff so Jim is "a captured runaway"
    99. Chapter 21 - reherses Romeo & Juliet
    100. tries Hamlet's soliloquy
    101. markets the "play"
    102. goes to the stores
    103. see pigs and stuff in town
    104. Boggs - town laughing guy
    105. Colonel Sherburn kills Boggs while his daughter watches
    106. mobs
    107. Chapter 22 - Sherburn's man speech
    108. crowd dies, goes to circus
    109. "drunk guy" who rides horse
    110. Huck's show
    111. Chapter 23 - "show" scam
    112. escapes
    113. Huck on the king
    114. Jim's family (c150)
    115. Chapter 24 - Duke wants to roam
    116. King dressed up
    117. A Story of Peter and George
    118. Going to funeral
    119. Capitalizes on the story
    120. Chapter 25 - fills the role as friends (c157)
    121. talks of "their" past
    122. checks out the will
    123. gives money to the girls
    124. caught
    125. gets money to invest for the girls
    126. Chapter 26 - Huck gets a crumby cubby
    127. They argue about nonsense at dinner
    128. Talks about servants & lies
    129. serches for money
    130. spies on duke & king
    131. hids money in bed
    132. Chapter 27 - Mary Jane cries at coffin
    133. funeral
    134. undertaker screws with the lid
    135. sells the "niggers"
    136. they leave
    137. Chapter 28 - Mary Jane upset about splitting the slave family
    138. Tells Mary Jane about frauds
    139. She leaves
    140. Write a note telling where the money is
    141. Tells a illness fib
    142. sets someone up
    143. plan is ready
    144. Chapter 29 - meets real guys
    145. gets proof, bad guys framed
    146. Lawyer and doctor interrogate Huck, King, and Duke
    147. handwriting tests and real fails
    148. tatoo question
    149. exhumes grave
    150. finds gold & leaves
    151. Chapter 30 - King and Duke catch up
    152. They argue about who stole the money
    153. Huck is relived.
    154. Chapter 31 - Talks of other scams
    155. whites find jim
    156. huck's regrets about jim
    157. tries to pray, tries to tell truth
    158. plans to steal jim back
    159. King and Duke interrogate Huck as a traitor
    160. Chapter 32 - Huck sees them lying and goes to Silas Phelps
    161. The Phelps's is really boring and still
    162. meets a black family and greeted by Mrs. Phelps
    163. Calls him Tom Sawyer
    164. Tricks the husband
    165. Chapter 33 - meets tom
    166. helps steal
    167. Tom plays as William Thompson
    168. kisses Aunt Sally - she thinks he's 'Sid Sawyer
    169. Has dinner and stuff
    170. tells story about what happened
    171. Chapter 34 - talks over plans to free jim
    172. inspects around
    173. tom risk takes
    174. meets jim during the day
    175. Chapter 35 - breaks into the shed thing
    176. have to deal with a chain
    177. they have a hypothetical discussion
    178. gets ready to break jim out
    179. argues hypothetically about digging through rock
    180. decides to saw
    181. Chapter 36 - starts digging
    182. changes to beigger and better tools
    183. they make contact and will send stuff to Jim via the "guards" (aunt sally and nat)
    184. Chapter 37 - missing shirt and candles
    185. missing sheet and other stuff
    186. tom schemes and fakes a spoon
    187. they steal more stuff to make it look alright
    188. makes rope ladder and pie
    189. jim got the shipments
    190. Chapter 38 - leaves coat of arms and inscription for Jim to leave behind
    191. gets grindstone
    192. tries to get Jim to tame a rattlesnake
    193. Tries to get Jim to get a rat and water a plant with his tears - Tom gives up
    194. Chapter 39 - Aunt Sally finds the rats
    195. gets snakes and Aunt Sally disciplines them for the snakes
    196. writes letters that something's a matter
    197. goes drag to escape, people nervous
    198. sends the final letter
    199. Chapter 40 - gets caught snooping in cellar
    200. gets caught smuggling bread and butter
    201. goes out of the shed and meets opposition
    202. Tom got shot, gets doctor
    203. Chapter 41 - lies badly to the doctor
    204. Aunt is happy and thinks nigger is crazy
    205. inspects the cabin
    206. speculation on how
    207. Adults go to find "Sid"
    208. Chapter 42 - Tom and Jim caught
    209. Jim is locked up and Huck likes Jim
    210. Everyone Complements Jim
    211. Tells that they set the trick up
    212. Jim was already free, they wanted adventure
    213. Verifies everything (Aunt Polly)
    214. Chapter The Last (43) - Plans next adventure; pap was in the floating house, dead

    1. Notice
      1. Puninshment for motive, plot, moral seekers
      2. facetious - jesting, playfully jockular
    2. Structure of the novel
      1. roman fleuve (286, afterword, french)
      2. picaresque - episodic tale - things just happen
    3. Banned
      1. Because some people are offended by the n word
      2. Kids can't say the word, very sensitive
      3. ? Racist ? - part of the time period
    4. Freeing Jim? (Chapter 16) [Sense of Right and Wrong]
      1. Huck is bothered by his conscience ("what had poor Miss Watson")
      2. has opinions but doesn't know what to do (always had followed Tom)
      3. goes to shore to do something - meets two men on skiff and tells that dad has small pox
      4. white guys search for slaves (c87, "what's that yonder")
      5. explains lies by feeling (c89, "they went on")
      6. satire - man separated from his children, seen as shameful (c86, "Jim talked out loud")
    5. Grangerfords (ch18, c102)
      1. part of aristocracy, "quality" (aristo- = best)
      2. honor, chivalric, feud (c105, "feud")
      3. Twain is mocking these church going, well dressed, aristocracy which has feuds
      4. Huck thinks its pretty stupid, (c112, "all of a sudden" 99)
    6. Duke and the King (c117 "one of these fellows")
      1. con men
      2. pokes at the gullible town people
      3. campmeeting, lies and gets money (c126-127, "well the first I knowed")
      4. Shakespeare play (ch21, "all the stores") - bad town image
      5. (ch23) the play, three nights, first night - scam
      6. Second night - another scame
      7. third night - revenge
      8. Chapter 25 - impersonates a dead guy's - huck is ashamed of this lying (as a nigger - stereotype
    7. Sherburn
      1. Boggs disses sherburn; sherburn kills boggs; town tries to lynch sherburn (c141, "sherburn never said a word"); gives speech about all men = cowards
      2. This is not satire because it is not as humorous.
      3. Insulting the mob (army = mob)
    8. Chapter 25-27
      1. The duke and king sponge information to play a dead guy's brother.
      2. The girl is a harelip (cleft palate).
      3. They cry and talk up the things.
      4. They count the money and add the difference. Then they give it to the daughters.
      5. Huck sees that the king and duke are smuggling the money, and Huck wants to steal the money and give it back to the girls.
      6. He takes the money to his room then the coffin.
      7. Funeral then sell everything
      8. Huck blames at the slaves.
      9. (p171 I say orgies) king's ranting
    9. Questions
      1. What happened to Huck's "Pap"?
        1. He went away in search of Huck's murderer. Huck finds out from the lady.
      2. Who has Huck's $?
        1. Judge
      3. Why is Tom so "into" freeing Jim?
      4. Why does Huck actually like Miss Watson?
        1. He doesn't like stealing her slave.
        2. He didn't like what she made him do.
        3. She didn't do anything bad to him.
      5. Why does Tom want to make stealing Jim so complicated?
      6. Why do Huck and Jim move deeper into slave territory when they really want to free Jim?
        1. They missed Cairo and the Ohio.
        2. They're going to get a steamboat ride.
      7. How does Jim find out that his daughter is deaf?
      8. How many aliases does Huck use? What are they?
        1. 6
      9. Why can't Tom's Aunt and Uncle hear anything they are doing especially when Tom goes up the stairs instead of the lightning rod?
        1. Twain just makes it easy.
      10. Is the knowledge that Huck posseses a realistic one for a 14 year old boy?
        1. He doesn't know French.
      11. Where was Jim while Huck was staying with the Grangerfords?
        1. He was hiding in a swamp or a grove surrounded by water.
    10. Chapter 38 - 39
      1. This is the plan to rescue Jim
      2. Drawn out and long
      3. Huck is more practical
      4. Tom gets what he wants and is more of a romantic
      5. Tom is playing with Jim and the family (This may be considered a slave.)
      6. Nat, a slave of the Aunt and Uncle,
    11. Textbook Context p424-434
      1. Railroads had eaten up the last of the American Fronteir.
      2. The population skyrocketed as immigrants came in.
      3. Writers could move a lot and thus could write in many settings
      4. The land was gone by 1890
      5. Fronteir literature influenced Americans
      6. Everyone liked the US despite the depression and the scum of American society.
      7. Realism, still popular today, was a revolt against Romantics. (Twain)
      8. Some people opposed realism.
      9. Realistic writers had to find inspiration in real things and some went to naturalism.
      10. There was regionalism too.
      11. Poets were all wild and couldn't be catagorized


    1. Voice
      1. Maybe the characteristic mode of expression of a first-person narrator. Sometimes possibly refers to the total, individualistic effect of all the devices a writer habitually employs, the combinationof tactics that distringuishes his work of fiction from others. - personality of the narrator
      2. "Style" - diction - the choice or arraignment of words
      3. satire - mocking, to bring about reform, exaggerate deformities
      4. See Textbook 442-443 & Handout 3-10-97
        1. This was inspired by a poor white boy, Sociable Jimmy.
        2. There are striking similarities in powerful (adv), drownded, present paritciples, drunk father & no mother, dead animals, clock.
        3. Americans thought that novels had to be grand, but speech was cool.
        4. This speech was remarkable as the imagery of Poe.
        5. Hemmingway used this misspelling dialect.
      5. Vernacular
        1. "All modern American literature comes from a book by Mark Twain calle Huckleberry Finn." -- Ernest Hemmingway
        2. stardard native language of a country or locality; the everyday language spoken by a people as distinguised from the literary language
        3. See History Book and look at Mark Twain
        4. genteel tradition - Victorian high culture and fine art coupled with refined manner - Twain said, "literature and all that bosh"
      6. See 173 "I slipped up to bed" - it's hard to read, spelling, syntax, and contractions
        1. odd contractions - King'll
        2. odd grammar - I says, after I had took so much
        3. distoreted phrase - on accounds of
        4. new phrases - I slipped up to bed, I wanted to slide down
        5. distoreted words - dasn't, catched, resk, ruther
        6. new words - smouch
    2. Huck
      1. Upbringing
        1. Father beat him
        2. street smart (c?,23, "drowned man")
      2. Personality
        1. uneducated
        2. stubborn - resists autority
        3. values freedom
        4. creative & resourceful
        5. (c5,16, "Miss Watson she kept") superstitious, lonely, nature boy (reads signs)
        6. (c15,24,"A-rabs"; "magician") Huck is sensible; Tom is the dreamer, romantic.
        7. See Jim for more info
        8. Understanding of Jim (126 c150 "what was the use")
          1. sees missing wife and children
          2. sees parts of white people in Jim
      3. Dad
        1. (c27,34) "this is a wonderful govment" - Twain's satire mocking attitude [Voice] - abt professor (Black) should be sold
      4. Stealing & morality
        1. "borrow" things out of necessity (c64-65, "every night now" "steamboat captains")
        2. "borrowing" Jim
        3. helps by getting help, doesn't feel bad about the dead (c73, ch13, "I struck for the light")
        4. He's a liar (out of necessity)
        5. See pre-Map information
        6. He wants to give back the money (ch27) because he's decent.
        7. Huck's reflection on lying. Sometimes the truth is better. "I see I had spoke" (c180)
    3. Sterotype of Blacks
      1. Superstition - Hairball (c18,26 "hair-ball") - practical (money)
      2. Similarities to Huck
        1. values freedom
        2. nature boy (ch 9)
      3. Huck's tricks
        1. The hat
        2. Dead rattle snake
        3. fog dream (c83-84,77-78)
        4. Huck has friendship and respect to Jim (c83-84,77-78)
      4. Morality
        1. (p179 because mary jane) they, king and duke, think blacks will when they do the stealing.
      5. Nat, Aunt Sally's slave
        1. Tom and Huck manipulates Nat. (c226, c240, "this nigger had")
        2. He is superstitious and believes whatever Tom says.
        3. History Text 365-366 (minstrel tradition)
    4. Frontier
    5. River
      1. vehicle for freedom
      2. journey, "quest," emotional and psycological
      3. Heraclitus - life is like a river, you never step in the same river twice
      4. river = god - provider - bread, house, raft, canoe
    6. Jim as a human
      1. Sensitive, misses wife and children (126 c150 "what was the use") - deaf daughter
    7. Twain
      1. See Pre-map Grangerford
      2. Confederate Deserter
      3. writes about brutality

    (c35,40 "I didn't lose")


    1. a literary work in which human vice or folly is attacked through irony, derison or wit
      1. irony, verbal - when the literal meaning differs from the intended meaning
    2. writing that ridicules or criticizes induviduals ,ideas, insitutions, social conventions .. (social issues?) [text p1171]
    3. How to make it
      1. Social issue
      2. characterize a type of person
      3. cloning
      4. immigration
      5. death penalty
      6. euthenasia

    A Modest Proposal -- Swift

    1. Poor Children
      1. Mother beg to feed
      2. Grow up and become theifs
      3. Too many
    2. Solutions?
      1. Murder - no
      2. Eat them
    3. Dining menu
      1. Stew
      2. Portions
      3. Best in March
      4. 10 shillings to buy alive
      5. use skin for gloves
      6. from Formosa, sold girl who tried to poison the king
    4. Benefits
      1. will help pay landlords
      2. gets rid of dangerous enemies, catholics
      3. gets rid of child maintenence charge
      4. taverns get business
      5. makes marridges and children more precious
      6. better than pig
    5. this is a good idea and don't kill it until you've tried it
      1. gets food for people
      2. reduces debt of the masses
      3. "better to be happy than to have misfortune"
    6. CLASS
      1. proposes solutions to the problem

    That Lean and Hungry Look -- Jordan, Suzanne Britt

    1. Thin People
      1. efficiency
      2. always doing something
      3. crunchy and dull
      4. logic
      5. aren't fun
      6. seek truth
      7. oppressive
      8. stiff (humor)
    2. Fat People
      1. lazy, enjoys life
      2. hearty laugh
      3. illogic (world not perfect)
      4. no truth
      5. friendly

    A Theory of the Paragraph

    1. Make the paragraph the unite of composition

    In a narrative, your structure is chronological organization. We'll be looking at three types of paragraphs:

    1. Coordinate sequence
      1. The topic sentence will be designated level one.
      2. The other sentences will be designated level two.
      3. Class enumerating style dictates that one numbers the sentences flush left using "abc..." and the level numbers are on the right, indented as necessary.
      4. Example: Being a student means you're in for a difficult time. You always have to sit still in long classes. You're homework must be turned in on time. Interacting with tons of people, you have to be a secretary. Students have to produce masses of documents. They have to get ready to become productive members of society. Delivering presentations, reports, papers, and solutions, students must be multi-purpose and many-skilled. Worrying about their future in school, students have to work to meet tuition. Students have to compete with other students to get their jobs and colleges. Volunteering, students must work around their strict school schedules.
    2. Subordinate sequence
      1. This increasess detail or follows a train of thought or narration.
      2. Example: Why I want to go to college? - I want to go to college. College has cool professors. Professors do exciting and breakthrough research. Research contributes to the accumulated world knowledge. I can learn from the "makers" of world knowledge. Being informed about what happens in the research fields allows me to do whatever drudgery, quickly, and effeciently.
    3. Mixed sequence
      1. Combine subordinate and coordinate paragraphs

    "The Outcasts of Poker Flat"

    Written by Harte, Bret, this story fits under Realism and the Frontier. He wrote about the post-Civil War West. His stories were cool and he made money, however, when he went West, he was less successful when he moved East. He wrote as a Regionalism person and tried to capture his region.

    Mr. John Oakhurst is kicked out of Poker Flat. The exiles go to the Sierras. Tom Simpson, a young eloper with Piney, a 15 year old girl, joins the group with supplies. They get snowed in and Uncle Billy took stuff. They sing and do stuff because they're trapped. Starting story telling, Piney read the Iliad. The trees didn't have good wood and they were tired. They have lss and less fuel and they die.

    The class finds that this story is authentically regional. There are mountains. Granite cliffs were also there. The scale of the landscape was important. The people are social outcasts. This is different from the normal literature in the time which used middle class people. The East thought that the West was lawless.


    Sometimes known as the "local color" movement. This includes landscape, people, culture, as exampled by habits, speech, appearances, customs. Questions about regionalism include why, what type of curiosity, is it democratic, where was it, was it multicultural. It worked in the West, the South: Creek and Cajun, and also in New England. People not going West wanted to know about this. The people in the east were curious about the country. There was also this colonization aspect in that the people in the cultural capitals of Boston and New York were curious as people were migrating into the other parts of the country; thus civilizing it and "colonizing" the frontier with their culture. "At its very best Regional writing transcend the region and becomes part of the national literature." -- Kate Chopin, not a regionalist. A lot of the regional literature has remained in the background even today. Those unknown books were then really popular.

    "The Open Boat"

    This is a story by Crane, Stephen. He is a naturalist and was well acclaimed. His work included The Red Badge of Courage (1895) and War is Kind, an anthology of poems (1899). He only lived to be 28. Realism is where they became cynical and naturalism is where they went ordinary and a little scientific.

    (I) The boat is in a storm and compared to a bronco. They head toward the rescue place. (II) They see gulls and encounter seaweed and finally a light house. (III) They approach and remember that the rescue station was abandoned. They don't get rescued. (IV) They contimplate dying. They find a stupid tourist waving about. Night fall and the oiler and correspondent switch off rowing. (V) They go into the night. (VI) Some memories come back. (VII) They find a village. The boat sinks and they swim. The correspondent is in a current. They get rescued.

    There was the sea gull eating theory (507) and the shark (515) which threaten the men. The captain was injured and the cook didn't row. The men had a "subtle brotherhood" and they were polite. The captain waves the rescuer to the other men.

    Some questions include, identifing passages where Crane says his views, how is it naturalist, and counter the statement that the characters were conditioned. It is naturalist because people were being manipulated by forces of nature beyond their control. See 507 right column first full paragraph. See 513 right column second full paragraph from the bottom. The situtation is significantly screwed up so that it is an environment where visions, revelations, and epiphanies are easily encountered. This such spiritual experience, and considering the environment of the friendly dinghy, the correspondent remembers kindly upon this experience.

    Realism and naturalism is defined in the book. Realism tries to reflect reality accurately. Naturalism is a subset of realism and it is fatalist. "They had a comprehensive view of existence." Both styles are pessimistic. Naturalists were a bit more pessimistic. Naturalists wind up glorifying the intrinsic and precious human values

    The Modern Age, 1915-1946

    Carl Sandburg served as a soldier and later a novelist. The Great War made the US think more of Europe. Motivating factors included the sinking of the Lusitania where 128 Americans died. The end of the Great War saw the prohibition and organized crime, and even later, unemployment would become rampant. World War II ends this era and the US winds up again, saving the world.

    There was a feeling uncertainity with WWI. This was a departure from the Progessive do it all scheme. Themes were hidden in images. Imagism (1909-1917) went agaisnt the sentimentality of 19th century poetry. Some writers were expatriates and moved to Paris.They statred the stream-of-conciousness narration and other new ways of expression. Americans also were known to the world. Lewis, Sinclair was one honored with the Nobel Prize for Literature. There was also the Harlem Renaissance where Hughes, Langston wrote. This was not a coherent movement. Humor from White, E. B. and Rogers, Will also entered society.

    1. Hemmingway, Ernest
    2. Steinbeck, John
    3. O'Neill, Eugene
    4. Buck, Pearl S.

    The Great Gatsby

    Chapter 1: The narrator is Nick Carraway who graduated from New Haven in 1915. Cynical and accusing of everyone being plagarists, Mr. Carraway imposes his ideas on everyone but Gatsby. He grew up mid-western and lived in the West Egg Village. He went to the East Egg to have dinner with Tom Buchanan and Daisy, his second degree married cousin. He meets Miss Jordan Baker who will play "tomorrow" in a tournament at Westchester (23). The narrator feels uncivilized and Tom points out cynically that civilization is falling apart accoding to The Rise of the Coloured Empires. There is the story of the butler's nose in polishing silver.

    Chapter 2: We get introduced to Mrs. Wilson; Mr. Wilson, a photographer; Myrtle, the mistress; Catherine; and Mrs. McKee. Mrs. Wilson changes her clothes a lot. Tom goes with Mrs. Wilson, shopping, buys a dog. Mrs. Wilson is in her mid-thirties and fat but pleasing. Catherine says Tom and Daisy don't like each other but Daisy is Catholic and can't divorce. (Daisy, according to the narrator, is not Catholic.) Tom gives Mrs. Wilson a bloody nose.

    Chapter 3: Nick goes to Gatsby's party. It has chauffeurs and Rolls Royces with a hhuge orchestra. People who were not invited came anyway. He found Jordan, but not his host. They chit chat and say that Gatsby was in the army and had killed a man. He chats with a man, not knowing its Gatsby only to find out mid conversation. He talks about books and hydroplanes. The orchestra plays a really new piece. Jordan cries and Gatsby and her walk out and the call her aunt. He sees a small accident where a wheel of a car falls off. Gloomy and lost, Nick wanders, looking at romantic women and just doing nothing really. He meets Jordan Baker and finally recalls the scandal and notes her dishonesty, but he forgets the dishonest part. He's curious.

    Chapter 4: Nick analyses who goes to Gatsby's parties. Gatsby takes him on a car trip where he tells his story of his San Francisco family dying and leaving money, going to the war hoping to die but winding up heroically pushing far into enemy territory, and just wandering, trying to forget the pain and sorrow. We learn about Gatsby from Mr. Wolshiem who rigged the 1919 World Series. He learns about Daisy's history and how Gatsby really is obsessive about her. He kisses Jordan.

    Chapter 5: Gatsby and Nick arrange a meeting time. While it rains, they talk about how his house looks and Daisy comes. After sending the driver away, Gatsby and Daisy talk and explore the house. Gatsby is nervous and they sit down to hear Klipspringer, Ewing, the room renter, play the piano.

    Chapter 6: Gatsby, Jay's real name was Gatz, James who changed it when he was 17. He was making a living fishing and working for rich Cody, Dan. He helped Dan with his yacht, but Dan died after Ella Kaye came on board. She got most of the money. Nick, Tom, and Gatsby sit down and Nick learns about Gatsby and Daisy from Gatsby. Gatsby accepts the "facetious" invitation to dinner from Mrs. Sloane. Daisy and Gatsby dance and they talk about the Sloanes. Nick sees drunk Mrs. Baedeker. They speculate that Gatsby is a bootlegger and Gatsby consults Nick about Daisy and if she was bored.

    Chapter 7: Gatsby fired all of his servants. Feeling the hot weather, the characters hang out to chill. They talk about Tom and his girlfriend and his break up. Daisy kisses Gatsby. Tom insists on going to town and seems to know about Gatsby and Daisy. After deciding who rides in whose car, Nick, Jordan, and Tom zoom off. They see the Wilsons at the gas station and Myrtle glares at Jordan, thinking she's Tom's wife. The feel hot at the park. They get to the heart of the problem and ask Daisy who she loves. After initially being stopped, Nick and Jordan leave. There is some greek gu named Michaelis. Myrtle is run over by Daisy.

    Chapter 8: Nick wants Gastby to take a vacation so that his car isn't implicated in the Myrtle run over. Gatsby hangs with Daisy and doesn't really know her other than being "married." There is the history of their relationship. Conversing with Jordan, Nick ponders the situation. George Wilson and Michaelis talk about the family. Mr. Wilson is found dead in Gatsby's shrubs.

    Chapter 9: Gatsby's dead and Nick aids with the post mortem arraigments.Tom and Daisy went away and Wolfsheim can't come. Mr. Gatz comes to in response to an article in the Chicago newspaper. Nick meets Mr. Wolfsheim and hears the story. Wolfsheim won't come and Nick and Mr. Gatz see the last resolves of Jay Gatsby. No one but a thick glassed person comes to the private funeral. Nick notices that everything had been a sham and that they were all from the West. Jordan is going to marry another person. He talks with Tom who thinks Gatsby was a trickster and messed up everyone.


    There are a lot of ways to approach this book. The class feels that the first few pages were boring. There is really a lot of good stuff, good writing in the first chapter. One must understand the narrator because he is the one telling the story. He isn't a third person narrator because he details his life and Gatsby. Tom, Nick Carraway (narrator), Daisy, Jordan, and Gatsby are the five main characters. Get into groups of three and find for each of the five main characters, three observations or insights into their character. You may have to infer their character. There is also general wisdom in the first chapter. Find three aphorisms.

    1. Character Observations
      1. Jordan
        1. transient
        2. sportive
        3. self absorbed
        4. Louisville, Kentucky
        5. Nick had heard an unpleasant story about hear (23)
      2. Tom
        1. cheater
        2. supercilious (11)
        3. civilization is going to die (17)
        4. rich
        5. Chicago
        6. has a mistress
      3. Daisy
        1. pessimist (21)
        2. frivilous
        3. sophisticated
        4. Louisville, Kentucky
      4. Gatsby
        1. rich
        2. leisurely
        3. secure
      5. Nick
        1. cynical
        2. wishes well-roundedness
        3. revitalized
        4. WWI
        5. hates midwest
        6. is a rose 19
        7. snobbish
        8. not boring
    2. Aphorisms
      1. Conduct may be founded on hard rock or the wet marshes... 6
      2. personality is an unbroken series of successful gestures 6
      3. an evening [hurries] from phase to phase toward its close in a continually disappointed anticipation or else in sheer nervous dread of the moment itself. 17

    This is taking place in the east and he is telling the story while being in the midwest. The west is anything beyond the Appalachians. Nick lives in the poorer less fashionable West Egg. They all came from the West.

    On page 6, there are some mysteries posed. It said that Gatsby represented everything in men of unaffected scorn. Do we know enough about Nick yet to even guess what he's talking about? No, we don't, it poses a mystery, but Gatsby represents this. There is a contradiction, if Gatsby represents everything of unaffected scorn, then why should Gatsby be exempt from Nick's reaction. What is "it" that preyed on Gatsby. We haven't really met the guy yet. These are mysteries related to the whole heart of the book.

    A lesser mystery is hidden in the meaning of the sentence. The sentence, "If personaliity is an unbroken series of successful gestures, the there was something gorgeous about him..." is the other mystery. This tells that Gatsby is a smooth and slick guy. Gatsby had an extraordinary gift of hope. He opitomized the man of his decade.

    This book takes place in the Jazz Age which was an era of possibility and aspiration.

    Memoir or observer narration is where the narrator is telling the story in first person but the focus is on a third person. This is the point of view used in The Great Gatsby. An observer narration is "told by someone who knows the third person's story and resonates with it to the point of mythifying. This resonance is the key to why one person tells another story."

    Rumors about Gatsby include that he killed somebody. He could be a German spy and a relative of Kaiser Wilhelm and he went to Oxford. We do know that he has a huge house and lavish parties. He was in the same division in the US army as Nick. (52, "he smiled understandingly") He's all fluff and he isn't sincere. He's impersonal (57, "Don't mention it").

    Nick wants to laugh because the story sounds like it's from a cheap novel (Page 68). Gatsby hasn't been real. He carries a medal and photo. Gatsby wants to meet Daisy (Page 72). Mr. Wolfshiem was a Jewish gambler with human molar cuff links who rigged the 1919 World Series. He is sentimental and mobster.

    Nick who is one of the few honest people he knows and Jordan who is incurably dishonest make an odd couple (Page 62). Also she says she's careless and it is implied that Nick is careful, maybe too careful. Can we trust the narrator? Jordan had told of Daisy and Gatsby and hookin' 'em up (Page 84). Daisy liked Gatsby when he was in the army. She married Tom and gets drunk.

    Gatsby's motivation was to show off the house and possesions and thus win over Daisy. He wants to be somebody and thus have Daisy, who had been unfairly taken by rich Tom. Gatsby wanted Daisy to say she didn't like Tom anymore (116). Tom wanted to acquire something. Nick remarks that Gatsby dreamed more than Daisy (101). He wanted to be somebody from a fisherman to being great Jay Gatsby. [Look at the line "Daisy, you make me feel so uncivilized."] We see his self-invention and his aspirations on page 104-105. "This came from his culture during the 1920s where money and success was the key." [Perhaps Dan Cody] Horatio Alger wrote Ragged Dick which was a rags to riches stories. Speaking metaphorically on Gatsby's heart, Fitzgerald tells us that his heart is riotous with imagination and dreams (105). On page 117, Gatsby kisses Daisy and she is the incarnation of his dreams (117, last paragraph). Daisy's voice is money (127). It makes it seem like fairy tale. "He is son of God" (104). Gastby wanted to have a chance at Daisy.

    The symbols of Daisy's voive has references on 13 "I looked back...voice," 114 "Daisy began to sing," 111 "They arrived at...voice," 90 "the exhilerating ripple," and 19 "The butler...voice." The symbol of the house has references in 43 "The music," 86, "When I came home," 96 second paragraph and on, 103 about the theory of Gatsby's house, 9 last paragraph, and chapter 3 on page 43.

    A description of Daisy's house and Gatsby's reaction. (Page 155) It's acutally a bit like the paradox where Gatsby might love the house or might love Daisy. He knew he was in the house on accident and socially he was out of place. He likes the porch (page 157). Tom had allowed Daisy to go with Gatsby because he had deflated the Gatsby image (hotel).

    Ash heaps and Dr. Eckleburg are found on 167. This is where Michaelis is chatting with Wilson about Myrtle. There is another reference on 27, 163, 131. Other possible titles were Among the Ashheaps and Millionaires, Under the Red White and Blue. Dr. Eckleburg seem to be omniscient. It's a wasteland and a place where dreams have turned to dust or maybe there weren't.

    Only his dad on page 176 calls him great. Gatsby followed an ideal and sacrificed himself for it. Nick said Gatsby had an extraordinary gift for hope and devoted unselfishly (or selfishly) to an ideal. Contrasting him with Tom and Daisy, he has many more ideals than them who are more self indulgent and self protective. Paradoxically, Mr. Gatsby is a criminal.

    The theme of waste is found in the book. It is a common theme for American writers as a result of pessimism and cyncism. "It's great potential squandered." A power for good is somehow corrupted and diverted to false goals. This stems from materialism. On page 189, the second paragraph reflects Gatsby and the initial discoverers of the New World. This contrasts with the images of ashes and wasteland. Nick saw some of his dreams in Gatsby and sought morality. Gatsby had entered Tom and Daisy's world and found nothing there. Jordan and Nick broke because they would have been like Tom and Daisy and Jordan was a cheat.

    Class Story Presentations


    "Once aboard the Lugger (I)" is a very symbolic story. It deals with Joe, Pete, the Captain, and the nigger. It was during the time of teetotaling. They go to an island and land on it to dig lumpy sacks covered in metal.

    "Nympholepsy" is where a guy runs after a nymph. He dives in water and does all sorts of wierd stuff.

    "The Bear" is where a kid goes after a mythical bear. He eventually finds it and doesn't kill it.


    She's southerner and she had Lupis and was religious. She's disturbed by hypocrasy. Using irony, she writes about society

    "A Stroke of Good Fortune" is where Ruby, a fat 34 year old, goes up four flights of 28 step stairs. She has a fortune teller, Madame Soleeda. She encounters a toy gun and Mr. Jerger, a loud trivialist. Then she meets frivoulous Laverne Watts. Finally she slips on the steps.

    "The Life You Save May Be Your Own" is where there is an old woman and a daughter, Lucynell, who is 30 years old and can't speak. Mr. Shiftlet comes and does some work and winds up with the car, $17.50 and Lucynell. He just wanted the car and drives and puts Lucynell in some wierd place and he goes to Mobile.

    Mr. Shiflet and the old woman are all fakes. He claims a "moral intelligence." There are always references to the car. Irony involves where they talk about cars and the daughter. He has one arm and her daughter is deaf. The lady "protected" her daughter yet he doesn't want her. She says she won't let anyone take her daughter. Shiflet takes her daughter away.

    Donald Barthelme

    "The Glass Mountain" is a post modern story. He hates symbols and throws it away.

    "How I Write My Songs" is satire.

    "Nothing: A Preliminary Account" is just some idiocy on how to get nothing and why nothing is impossible.

    "Engineer-Private Paul Klee Misplaces an Aircraft Between Milbertsofen and Cambrai, March 1916" is the dual narration by an "omnipotent" secret police and the engineer-private Paul Klee. It just documents a "normal" occurrence when an airplane gets stolen.

    Ernest Hemingway

    "In Another Country" starts off in a hospital and then proceeds to talk about the restraints of marriage.

    "Indian Camp" is about a caesarian birth in the Indian fronteir. The father kills himself. This story is about Nick who seems to be about 7-10 years old. This is the "struggle" for life and death. The screaming was unimportant because it was normal. It probably was set in Michigan.

    "The Killers" is where two people come and call the guys bright boy. They come and threaten to kill Ole Anderson for a friend. Nick escapes and tries to warn Anderson but Anderson does nothing.

    He was a modernism writer. Modernism involved people's quotodien strugges and captured the essence of modern life. Writers tried to keep their stories meaningless and they are uncertain and bewildering forcing us to draw our own conclusions.

    Bernard Malamud

    "The Magic Barrel" is a story about Leo Finkle, a seminary student. He goes to Salzman, a matchmaker. He is setup with tons of people but finds no good person. Leo goes for Salzman's daughter, Stella, maybe a prostitute. The Magic Barrel is the container with all the profiles.

    "The First Seven Years" is about Feld who has a daughter. He wants to hook her up. He I a shoemaker and tries to get her with the college student Max. He has an assistant Sobel who reads books. He finally at the end finds out that Sobel likes Miriam.

    They both deal with matchmaking and failures, they are all jewish. One is from the caller and the other is from the POV of the father. Both have bittersweet endings.


    "The Slump" makes everything everyday and stuff. Once you get on the field, he gets worred. This is the opposite of his early years where he felt nervous off the field and relaxed on the field. There is a blind spot where he can't see what's affecting him.

    "In Football Season" everything is descibed in terms of scent. It is another story about loss especially youth.

    Ann Beattie

    She writes stories in short simple sentences and thinks this forms a better sense of realistic chaos. "Imagined Scences" had no point.

    Dialogue in Class

    "Hi," she said.

    "Hi," he replied succintly.

    "I haven't seen you that much."

    "Me too."

    She pondered silently how she could confront him. "I was wondering ... I have a weekend off pretty soon ... We could spend some time with the family." Family, cousins, brothers, and parents, they were the only reason to get off work and celebrate something like Christmas. "Maybe we could go and take a vacation, alone? Just around here."

    David hesitated, "I feel really bad, but I can't get off work, we have to get several projects done before the end of the month."

    A desparate silence surrounded them. It seemed as though the silent air had disrupted the initial intentions. She decided to try once again, but later.


    Absolutes, 2

    Additions, 1

    Adjective Phrase, 2

    Aunt Sally, 5

    base clause, 1

    Boggs, 3

    Buck, 3

    Col. Grangerford, 3

    Colonel Sherburn, 3

    Crane, Stephen, 13

    dense texture, 1

    diction, 8

    expatriates, 14

    facetious, 5

    Gatsby, 17

    George Peters, 3

    Harlem Renaissance, 14

    Harte, Bret, 12

    Imagism, 14


    verbal, 10

    Jazz Age, 17

    Jim, 2

    Judge Thatcher, 2

    Judith Loftus, 3

    Klipspringer, Ewing, 15

    Memoir or observer narration, 17

    modernism, 19

    naturalism, 8, 13

    Noun Phrase, 2

    picaresque, 5

    Prepositional Phrase, 2

    Realism, 8, 13

    regionalism, 8, 12

    roman fleuve, 5

    satire, 8, 10

    Sherburn, 6

    Verb Phrase, 1

    Voice, 8

    Watson, 2, 3

    West, 17

    Widow Douglas, 2

    Wolfshiem, 17