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Kenneth Kang

Tuesday, December 10, 1996

Course in Progress Draft


East of Eden

The title comes from the book Genesis chapter 4 from the Bible. It is refered to in the story of Cain and Abel. Cain flees to east of eden. Character Lee claims that it is the symbol story of the human soul because it deals with jelousy and greed, thus we establish the structural and thematic basis of good and evil. It is also stated that rejection, anger, crime, and guilt follow each other. Again Samuel claims that we're all Cain's children. The characters suggest a transformation.

The question of the guilt is key. The differentiation between guilt and shame shifts the focus on the act to the person. There is also the question of timshel, or thou mayest. This implies control over something, mainly your life in sin. There is also the church doctrine which states that you have already been born with sin. Timshel says you can conquer it. Ignorace was equated with sin because it leads to sin through idelness likewise desparation can be a sin.

Executive Summary

Parent(s)                         Children                                       

Cyrus                             Adam, Charles                                  

Cathy (Adam / Mr. Edward)         Cal, Aron                                      

Aron & Abra                                                                      

Samuel & Liza                     Mollie, Dessie, Joe, Tom, Una (deceased)       

Una & Anderson                                                                   

Mr. & Mrs. Bacon                  Abra                                           

Table 1: Parantage

  1. Sameul Hamilton is from North Ireland and a middle class person.
  2. Cyrus Trask married a seventeen year old to help with his son, Adam, and bear him Charles.
  3. Charles beats Adam.
  4. Charles beats Adam.
  5. George, son of Hamilton, is polite, while Will, another son, evinces energy.
  6. Charles is alone on the Farm while Adam is in the army.
  7. Charles desires for Adam.
  8. The sons of Trask inherit money.
  9. Adam returns and finds out about the money.
  10. Cathy demonstrates sexual curiosity.
  11. She is punished.
  12. The whore house
  13. Cathy and Mr. Edwards
  14. Charles and Adam with their new house
  15. Adam meets the amnesiac Cathy.
  16. They marry.
  17. A philosophic discussion of Adam's image of Cathy
  18. Mr. Hamilton and Adam meet.
  19. Mr. Hamilton dreams of riches while Adam is blackness.
  20. Liza rides in a plane.
  21. Cathy and Adam
  22. Hamilton gives advice to Trask.
  23. Cathy wishes to leave. Lee seems good. They plan for windmills.
  24. Samuel and Joe leave on a wagon.
  25. Lee shows Chinese poetry
  26. Samuel is hurt.
  27. Is there a gun accident?
  28. The sheriff tells about Cathy.
  29. Faye & Kate
  30. Faye is softer toward Kate and thinks of her as a daughter.
  31. Plans for a suicide
  32. Kate "helps" Faye with her medication.
  33. Faye is dead.
  34. Samuel attempts to kill Adam.
  35. The story of Cain & Abel is discussed with Samuel and Lee.
  36. Una's death and its effect on Samuel
  37. A description of Tom
  38. Hamilton comes home late.
  39. Who is Olive?
  40. Doxology is dying.
  41. Samuel is dead.
  42. Kate visits Adam.
  43. Will discusses the death of his father.
  44. Cal and Aron share the credit on a kill.
  45. Adam visits the Bacons.
  46. Abra & Aron & Cal
  47. Lee tells Aron & Cal about their mom.
  48. Will teaches Aron and Cal about cars.
  49. Uncle Charles Tale
  50. Cathy and Adam settle with Charles' lawyers.
  51. Morrisons of Salinas
  52. Tom & Dessie
  53. Tom and Will's Success
  54. Philosophy
  55. Cal and Aron go to School.
  56. Aron and Abra share a secret.
  57. Adam does the transcontinental lettuce run.
  58. Cal finds out (about Cathy).
  59. Cal went to jail for gambling.
  60. Cal and Kate
  61. Ethel & Kate
  62. Cal & Will on Business
  63. Lee; Aron is pious.
  64. Abra & Lee
  65. Kate memory is deteriorating as well as an onset of arthritis.
  66. Kate is doing better.
  67. Adam Trask is on the draft board.
  68. A talk on Faye and Kate
  69. Aron & Abra
  70. Cal gives Adam a gift for his failures.
  71. Kate plans her end.
  72. Kate's hit man hits Joe.
  73. Aron learns of Kate.
  74. Adam would stop Aron from enlisting.
  75. In college, Abra sees Cal.
  76. Lee
  77. Murderer -- Timshel

Chapter 24: Focus on Timshel

Liza is portrayed as pious, mechanical, and cold, while Samuel is more resilent and stronger. Lee ans Samule start of chatting. Cal must fight. Samuel tries to anger Adam. Adam hasn't heard of Cathy. Samuel says Adam is afraid. There was no mother in the house so the children, Cal and Aron were not babied.

They point out the story of Cain and Abel in Genesis chapter 4. The Chinese scholars believe its a true story and interpreted timshel as may. It is written as an order in standard translations. They say it is a general history of humans.

Adam is told about Cathy, being a whore. Samuel ends happy.

Class 9-5-96: Sin

Definitions of sin:

(398) Even a murder may conquer sin. This is a big unsettled question. This streches the definition of a sin or of sin in general. Samuel tells Adam about Cathy which is an act of information, thus squashing ignorance. Cal doesn't conquer sin. Aron is not strong enough to conquer sin as a goodie two shoes. Cal and Abra are left to take over the world.

Class 9-12-96: How did Samuel change? Conquering over sin is not necessarily being good or bad, like guilt, and other feelings that can defeat you in life.

Chapter 34

"Humans are caught in their lives." Croesus loses his life as a result of his preoccupation. Where is the joy in riches? Where is the love? Another man might bribe and pester his way to power, but again where is the love? There is only hate. The last man had a mediocre life but had love. The others had sought short cuts to love. All stories boil down to this love, good, and evil.

Native American Indian Poetry

"From the Houses of Magic" p26 9-7-96

This was a spoken poem that was not written. The poems had meter and repeated lines. All the works were rythmic.

Composed of 7 sections and a total of 13 stanzas each with four lines, this poem seems translated. There is a lot of repetition suggestion it was originally sung. It is set in the early morning. It describes some magic and mentions a lot of singing.

Class 9-9-96

Written as a song for visions. Stanza (section) four states that he is now in a sacred chant and now in reality. Before he was in a dream. The Great Magician's house is equal to heaven. The houses of magic might be the local magic guy or the cliff dwellings.

"Spring Song" Chippewa p29 9-9-96

Five lines. Prairie is searched finding summer yet it is spring.

"Song Converning a Dream of the Thunderbirds" Teton Sioux p30 9-9-96

This is a joyous song that celebrates a successful dream quest.

Class 9-10-96

"From Houses of Magic" - There is a rhyme scheme: aabc aabc 2 abac abcd abac 3 aabc 4 aabcde abcd 5 abcb 6 aabc aabc 7 aabc aabc. Meter: 8

"Song Conercerning a Dream of the Thunderbirds" - aba cde bab 121 345 212

Extension: Alanis Moriset


No rhyme. The chorus, by musical necessity has 7 sylables per line.

Class: more rhyme, same structure as the next. Rejection & learn theme similar to both

You Learn

Chorus is mostly repeated with the change of one word, remaining syllabically identical. No Rhyme.

Class: The coda has the same structure as chorus. There exists some repetition. Exists as a ternary / Rondo structure with abc a'b'c b''cc'

Delaware and Navaho p12-19

In the Delaware Tribe, pictures explained the world. They lived in Pennsylvania and New York.

The Navajo were fierce warriors. During the 1860s, they were overrun by the US.

Myths were used to explain stuff. The Walam Olum explains the actions of spirits. The Navajo Origin Legend does the obivious. The powers or spirits were revealed through dreams and could be ordinary objects. They normally have a Cheif Spirit.

The Walam Olum: This is like the creation story in Genesis and has even a picture of a snake. Then the last one tells of an old earth.

The Navajo Origin Legend: They had the twelfth day as a day of reflection. The gods used buckskin and corn and wind to plant the people. The corn turns into people.

Other Creation Myths

Genesis I: Uses "[blank] was not they say." And ends with It was very dark.

Coyote & Junco: Similar to the Boy who Cried Wolf. The Coyote goes back and forth for a song. He has his teeth crunched in the end. That's why he has no teeth.

Pictures: Huh?

The Native Voice

Even primitive man has literature. They are sacred, historic and old. The native literature had been overwheliming and thus not studied. The initial natives had little but literature as a diversion. The oral tradition is the foundation of literature. Oral and written traditions are different entities. We become desenitized to language and silence as we write.

With spoken word, every word is important and must be remembered. The language is respected. Each word is magical. This expression also uses silence. Verbalness is sacred. This could not be done in words. The words become what they are and are no longer symbolic. The transcription loses stuff, but at least the oral tradition is preserved.

The storyteller must be understood. The short stories are formed. They are based on believe and by that token true. The storyteller becomes something during the story. The story cannot live more than the human voice. It is clear and profound. Every word is placed to show the meaning. It is complex and clear like a prism. They are human enough to be relatable. The story survived by chance.

It has been declared as a tradition bu unexplored. The Black Elk Speaks book is very good in the sence that it preserves the spirit. It is often compared more to poetry than novels. There are contemporary american indian novelists. They are different from the old, but the voice carried through.

Colonial Writings

Upon the Buring of Our House

Jul. 7, 1666 by Ann Bradstreet p.62

This has the reverence for God. Rhyme is in aabbccdd.... Interesting words are succorless. The meter is iambic tetrameter. It talks of heaven (41-49). The author according to the text is Puritan who attempted to place emotion in their realm.

Upon a Wasp Chilled with Cold

This poem by Edward Taylor gives a conceit on the wasp (p70). It uses the Sun as a warmer or a fire. The wasp warms her feet and stuff. The last lines admire the wasp as a diligent thing. There is an extended description of the stinger. There is a loose rhyming in couplets. This is again iambic tetrameter. The author was a Puritan and a Harvard graduate who is considered one of the best colonial poets and was once a teacher and a minister.


The north wind chills a wasp.

Numbing her

Lying stiff

The sun thaws her

as she rubs for warmth

extending each limb

longing for it.

Her limbs are warmed

Her head hurts



Her choice, dictate by law, is clear.

Her contained stinger, a panacea

requires thought.

She streches her wings

flys off to her nest

Thanks the sun.

Lord clear my sight so I can see

sparks of divinty

on the wasp's body

we can find lessons

the wasp works bravely with grace,

this small animal

I hope to emulate this Paradise

4. Grace warms the wasp which must be recognized and thanked. The sun is God's grace which is warm and everlasting. It is also distant and the wasp huddles to it. The wasp thanks the sun and returns home. It is like going to church and going home.

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God

This sermon excerpt by Johnathan Edwards does the Danny, you are saved from Hello by God's whim.

Essay Thoughts

Specific things to keep in mind are the techniques of logic, tradition, emotion, and reason while weighing it against the audience, speaker, and occasion. He is a leader in the Great Awakening and thus the audience needs to be revived and the occasion is this revival. He had a good reputation and he was from a wealthy and prestigious congregation. This was a theocrat influenced government. He knew the audience by using everyday objects. The audience knows the Bible and uses the Biblical images. The God's arrow is like the indians. The penultimate paragraph presents an emotional and logical opportunity for salvation while remaing consistent with the emotion of fear by stating you're left behind. "Those that are gone," appeals to the people who left others. The appeal to Sodom, a traditional story, is tradition. "Consider" (75) asks the people to think and reason.

Speech in the Virginia Convention

Henry, Partick. In American Literature Book. 1775

This is a speech at the Virginia Political Convention by an established but radical colonial leader (1775 after the First Congress). Several devices of this speech are rhetorical questions, restatement, repetition, and parallelism (repeated grammar structure).

He starts off by giving ground that he is patriotic. He then compares it to coercion in Biblical and Classical images. Rhetorical questions follow then he goes into that we have not been heard and have no hope but fighting. We have resources and when will we be stronger and God will guide us. The war has started in the North.

The speaker is qualified because he was in the First Congress and was promenant in the colonial leadership. The audience is composed of legislators and law makers otherwise intelligent and well-read people (conclusion drawn from demographic information in History). The occasion is the recent Congress and the Coercion Acts and Massachusetts fighting and the formation of a rebel government. The speaker uses logic to connect from the oppression, to appeals, compelled rebellion. The speaker uses tradition in the images of Odyessey, Judas, and Ezekiel. The speaker appeals to emotion in the use of Massachusetts and the compelled choice.

More About Techniques

Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. This is used by everyone everyday as you try to persuade people or people attempt convince you. The stump speech is the basic candidate speech.

Essay: Compare and contrast the persuasive techniques used in "Sinners" and Virginia," and what the relationship is between the spearkers' choices of techniques and the factors of audience, speaker qualifications, and occasion. Remember to compare and contrast and don't just discuss one then the other. Use quotes and blend them into your writing and use them to connect your ideas. Present intro, development and conclusion.

The Crucible

Miller, Arthur. 1953

Arthur Miller was born in 1915 and dropped out of high school only to attend U of Mich. He wrote plats starting 1947. The writing of The Crucible was a reaction to McCarthyism and the witch hunts that happened. He also wrote The Death Of A Salesman, All Of My Sons, Vichy, The Price, The Creation Of The World And Other Business, The Archbishop's Ceiling, and The American Clock, the latest dating 1980.

This is set in 1692 in Massachusetts colony. The art of witchcraft was tried vigorously in Europe, but not as much in America, however, in Massachusetts' stressed lives, it was bound to blame the devil for the calamities that struck. This play (1953) slams on the McCarthy era where there was a fear driven Communist hunt.


Note on the names, the prefix Goody seems to be a standard title and thus should be disregarded.

Character Analysis

For all literature, the author reveals the character by:

  1. Physical Desciption
  2. Information from narrator or other characters
  3. Their actions
  4. What they say
  5. Their thoughts
  6. Sometimes their time and place of entry
  7. Sometimes their association with people and objects

They are all availible in plays. Specifically what happens in the Crucible.

Reverend Parris

His actions in caring for Betty contrast with what other he says about his position. In preaching about hell and not God, Protor, another character, points out this inclination toward pessimism. Parris also mentions his salary which makes him seem like a quibbler and not grateful, malcontent, or greedy.

Reverend Hale

He is introduced as expert on withcraft. His description of his enterance with many books gives some idea on how he acts. He is also purported to have encountered a witch. Combined with his statement that his judgement should be binding, he is really arrogant and conceited.

Rebecca Nurse

Mrs. Putnam is envious of her because she has had many children while Mrs. Putnam has lost many.

Act I

Gloomy image of quiet, governed town. There were the feigners and there was the wilderness. It was a chance to vent steam. Slave is shunned off. There is no cure for the ailing Betty as told by Abigail & Susanna. Abigail admits of witchcraft. Putnam flares up at Abigail. "Parris is struck" means ? Putnam says its death and offers advice

(1040-1055) Putnams finger Tituba. Adults leave and they discuss what happened and Betty wakes. Betty asks for mama even though she's dead. Abigail tries to get John Proctor who entered. Betty wails when a hymn to God is sung and Rebecca Nurse says it is the Devil. Reverend Hale is comming. Parris complains about firewood. Hale comes and they present their evidence.

[1056-1062] How can the devil attack my house? It would triumph over good. Tituba is accused and is said to drink blood. I have corrupt dreams and Tituba is forced to confess or die. They ask for others. They accuse Sarah Good and Goody Osborn.

Act 2

[1062-1072: See class on character development] Proctor has seeded the farm and it is late at night. He tastes and complements Elizabeth's rabbit stew and hopes for a good summer. Fourteen people have been accused and Mary Warren is an official of the court. The accused will be hung unless they confess. Proctor thinks of charging Abigail of fraud. Entering the stage, Mary acts strangely as Osborn will be hung. Osborn is hung because Mary thought she had cursed him because she had turned poor Osborn away from food and cider. Elizabeth was also accused because she talked to Mary wrong. Ezekiel will save her, but John turns on her. Hale comes in a little guilty. Rebecca Nurse has been charged. They had not been going to church. [Rest of Act read in class]


Proctors: They're both worried about the witchcraft thing. John had made out with Abigail. She doesn't trust him as much. Elizabeth catches that John was alone with Abigail during the first act.

Mary Warren appeared in the first act as one of the dancers in the forrest. She's a servant and had served in the court in the trials as a witness/defending. The court has Good and Osborn as accused. She feels important.

Hale visits so that he can investigate.


[1082-1090] Prereading: McCarthy Era had as similar hunt compared to the text. Private lives were scrutinized and people werwe asked to produce lists of communits.

Martha Corey cannot offer evience that she is not a witch so she is the accused. Giles attempts to intervene with evidence. Danforth listens to Giles and instructs him with the defense of his wife only after reprimanding him for the disturbance. Francis Nurse says the girls are frauds. Four hundred are jailed and seventy-two to be hanged. Mary Warren confesssed to fraud. The trials were a pretense. Proctor is tested less harshly by Danforth and hears that his wife claims pregnancy. [1086] The Crucible is because of the first three lines in the left column where they will burn all the concealment. Parris is behind the hunt saying everthing is an attack against the court. Proctor produces a petition attesting to his wife's goodness. They want to arrest the people who were told that they would not get hurt. The people are arrested for ex amination. Giles writes good depositions and had been 33 platiffs. Putnam is accuesed for using his daughter on George Jacobs. They pry a name for proof of Putnam's act. The evidence is overlooked.

[1090-1103] They try to squeeze a name out of Giles. Hale is switching sides. They have to trust the children for the evidence as heavenly messangers. There is no use for evidence. Danforth scares Mary Warren with the massive consquences of her lying. Abigail denies everyting and gets Mary. They examine the fainting thing and dancing, but Mary can't faint. The girls fake or pretend to be afflicted. Abigail threatens Danforth. Proctor admits to the affair with Abigail. Elizabeth tries to protect her husband. The girls play copycat with Mary, spooking everyone. Mary joins the girls and accuses Proctor. Mr. Hale leaves in disgust. Proctor says God is dead because the court is not under God.

Act IV

[1104-1114] Prereading: There are themes like hysteria and good and evil and corruption. Stuff that are noticeable is Reverend Hale. This is not accurate history by each character, but history in a broader sense.

They, Tituba and Sarah Good, jailed people act like they work for Satan. They act up on the Devil. They take Tituba. Danforth thinks the jailer, Herrick is drunk. Mr. Parris tries to save the jailed. The children are gone. Cows wander untended. Mercy and Abigail run off with Parris's money, to escape the truths from Andover which rejected withcraft trials. Parris is worried on the attempts at his life and he suggests postponement of the hangings. Hale tries to save Proctor who had been excommunicated. They get his wife to soften him up. Hale says they are innocent and orphans wander in town. Hale wants to delay the executions. They leave husband and wife alone and the husband faces death in minutes. Giles died for not answering to the indictment. Elizabeth wants him to live. She thinks she caused him to be accuesed. Elizabeth kisses up to John cause he had confessed to adultery and he's going to die. Protcor thinks of himself as a a fraud. He says he'll get hung, but he'll think he's still a sinner. He starts confessing.

[To The End] Proctor gives the answer they want to hear, but he doesn't implicate others. Proctor is accused for influncing Mary Warren. He is hesitant about his testimony being recorded and signed. He takes the confession on the ground that he confessed to God and the village doesn't need it. His name and his friends will be destroyed so he oppose the posting of the confession. Proctor dies with honor (well in a sense).

He would have lost his name as well as his soul. He also would have signed (opposed to admitting in court). Elizabeth doesn't offer outright yes or no because she really doesn't know what to do either.

Why I Wrote The Crucible

Miller, Arthur. New Yorker. (No Date)

The movie reminded me of the time when the play was written. I have lost the fear, as fear does not transcend generations. I remember the fear, the power, that McCarthy had. We had the fear of the Russian Empire. The State Department was fingered as China went Red. I was desparate and vented using the play, so as not to seem communist. Truman had to at first deal with the problem. He had to institute loyalty commissions of his own. I had another script and showed it to Harry "F.B.I." Cohn who wanted the change the gangsters to communists.

I went to Salem and read the wicthcraft transcripts. I found something of myself in John Proctor (My marridge was teetering.). The parallel was almost too uncanny. The court had made a fatal decision to admit spectral evidence which was my word against you, essentially. The parallels went to Hitler Germany with the Jews and the black listed people during McCarthy. I wanted to try out New England writing. It took a year to write. The newspapers screamed headlines of communists while the play got bad reviews. The Crucible is widely sold and read, even going to South American dictatorships. It shows the break out of paranoia.

He wanted to expose the civil rights and stuff. He wanted to show the parallels and had to write in old times instead of communists. The Proctor adultery is considered natural.

The Revolutionary Period, Accelerated

[88] The English had been here a long time. They were typically Englightenment rationalists who preferred Rousseau and Locke. [93-95] They wrote politics. They had Thomas Paine, Partick Henry, James Otis, and Thomas Jefferson with the Declaration of Independence and Common Sense. There was also the Constitution. There is not much American Literature.

The format of choice was a broadside, one sheet printed on two sides. There were poets, Joel Barlow and Phillis Wheatley, and writers like Michel-Guillame Jean de Crèvecoeur. Benjamin Franklin had a almanac.

Declaration of Independence

[132-133] Thomas Jefferson was a scientist, writer, and many other things. He was born wealth and had a education. He was minister to France and read and did research at Monticello, his home. He made the public school system and ordered the Lewis & Clark expedition.

The structure of this writing includes parallelism, the repeated use of similar sentence structure. This work was edited by the Second Continental Congress and sent to George III. They would all be accused of treason.

Locke and Rousseau spoke of a social contract between the government and the people.

We have the right to revolt. All ment are created equal. There is a natural law. The colonies have been patient and have endured bad laws. He took away representation and restrained governors. He made the legislature uncomfortable and far away. He prevented migration and justice as well as allowed corrupt judges and standing armies. He declared war on us. He got rid of free English laws in Canada. We declare our independence.

There are words that carry strong connotations. Jefferson aruges, after making the natural law assumptions, that the King has made abuses and thus lead to independence.

  1. Certain Language - "causes" (reasons), "facts", decent respect to the opinions of mankind"
  2. Tone - sounds reasonable: each "fact" sounds reasonable; absence of direct appeal to emotion
  3. Structure: chain of reasoning

Question #10

Eighteenth-century faith in reason is reflected in the first paragraphs where the declaration appeals to people and human events and nature's God. It reasons logically from these ideals and states that governments are institutions created by men and thus also can be destroyed by men. After citing the British violations, the declaration finally draws the parallels from the earlier naturally given rights to independence and British actions which justify the American Independence.

The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano

Text page 152. Autobiographical. He, a.k.a. Gustavus Vassa, was a slave at 11 and worked it off and later worked to abolish slavery. This is written in the slave narrative which is mainly autobiographical. There was a lot of slave death. Their writings are massive testimonies, greater than that of other slavery times. First seven chapters were about Middle Crossing.

The hold stunk and there were too many people. People were dying. The fish that were caught were thrown to sea and slaves who went for them were beat. I saw flying fish and a quadrant, a navigational sighting tool. The slaves were sorted a Brigdetown, Barbados. They were put into a hold with everyone together and then sold.

A Growing Nation

They thought that large cities might have too much democracy. There was the Monroe Doctrine (1823), Texas (1835), and the War of 1812.

United States literature developed by 1840. England had been popular for literature until this time. There was Americans like Poe, Bryant, Moore, and Simms. America had great vistas for writing. The Knickerbocker Group was one of the literary groups as well as the Cheese Club. They used local material.

They were mostly romantics separating from the reason based founders and the religious settlers. There was an accent on mystery, nature and civilization. New York was initially the hot spot and later Boston.

Class 11-8-96: Mr. Carlson's Lecture

The Americans had a cultural literary inferiority complex. Alexis de Tocqueville was the Frenchman who did pioneering observation of democratic, politcally active America. He predicted that Russia and America would be the two great powers on the earth.

Here's this new country with a political but not cultural identity. This lead to the dominate theme that carries even today. Authors talk and discuss on what it is to be American. The older European countries don't have this discussion. The dynamic nature and constant change of America allowed and promoted such a discussion. "The history of American literature is now commonly conceived as a evolution to indigenousness." -- Unknown. This can be summarized as a search for the authentic American. Some more or less authenic American writers began to emerge, and your book names four of them. They are figures, who in hindsight, are American. They are Poe, Cooper, Irving, and Cooper. WE'll only look at Poe. Poe is the one who has had the most lasting effect on American culture.

At the same time, we have this thing called Romanticism, a movement in thinking. Romanticism has nothing to do with romantic love. They were more spiritual, a reverence, adoration, and exaltation for nature, inner intution and imagination, human condition. We're looking at a progression. "We're looking a flowers on a galloping horse." -- Chinese saying. The age of reason has past to mushy novels. Your book does list many many aspects of romanticism. If you look in your book on 171 under literary movements, you can see it there, so ha. There was an accent on mystery. The Hudson River school was a painting school. The landscape became the subject and this was particularly applicable because America had tons of land.

Of course there were other worldly events that tied into Romanticism. The French Revolution (1789) had a tremendous impact as it elevated the common man with his thoughts and feelings. These became legitamized and became much more important. The thoughts and feelings of the aristocracy were less important and la vie quotienne a devenu importante. Romanticism was much more European than American. It wasn't unimportant, for example England had its share of poets who were called the Romantic Poets. Keats, Wordsworth, Byron, et al. were known as Romantic Poets. In England and in France, Romanticism was much more stronger and influencial in literature.

There was no real identifiable "Romantic" writers in America. The book introduces Romanticism because certain pieces of that thought entered into the authors' works. THE BOOK STATES, CONTRARY TO MR. CARLSON, THAT THE AUTHORS ENUMERATED WERE ROMANTICS. The three chief aspects of romanticism is the inner life, nature, and the intuition, and furthermore the relationship between human nature and the imagination. The literary center occillated between New York and Boston. Philadephia and Virginia had its writers too. New York was a backwater during the revolution until the 1800s.


During the 1800s, there was a cultural inferiority complex dealing with political identity without a real literary one. Similarly there was a theme that arose from this "What is an American?" Four writers emerged who we now recognize as having influence: Poe, Bryant, Irving, Cooper.

Romanticism consisted as a admission of complexity and a reation to the "Age of Reason." Major themes included a reverence for nature and a focus on inner life, imagination, and intuition.

Edgar Allan Poe - 1809-1849

He was informally adopted by a Virginia Merchant and attended and dropped out of University of Virginia and West Point, which broke off the stepfather relationship. He published poetry then fiction to make money. He never escaped poverty and his work, widely read, is still hotly debated. Poe framed the stories for a single effect like the following, "The Fall of the House of Usher".

He describes the dreary House of Usher. He knew Roderick Usher as a friend during childhood. He had been reserved and knew not much when he got a letter regarding an acute bodily illness. The family was one descendant branch. The air around the mansion was foul. The building was old but magnificent. He awed and pitied at the bored man who was once his friend. Usher's actions, lively, were contrasting to his appearence. Usher condemns himself. The mansion had suffered over time, and Usher suffered when his sister, lady Madeline, died. They said she was a cataleptic, having seizures that also block senses. Then Usher and the narrator remain quiet. He went into a vault that was somehow lighted despite not having an opening. Usher played the guitar as other music hurt him and sang songs.

The song sings of angels, palaces, banners. All happy. The smell went away as wanderes saw royalty. The royal estate was beautiful but plagued. It later is gone.

The surroudnings had been influencial about the house. They went over books. They would wait a fortnight before final burial. They buried it in a vault in the building and saw that the sister smiled and blushed. After eight days, superstition set in. There was some noise and I woke up and Usher came in. There is a huge storm outside. They read the book to calm themselves. Ethelred, the protagonist, tore off a door and went to the dragon and killed it. There was amazing similarity to the story and the sounds. Usher wass trembling. Ethelred went for a shield but it dropped. This also happened in Usher's house. Usher knew of the live burial. His sister is there and killed Usher. The narrator flees and sees the house destroyed.

Class 11-11-96

There is the image of the tarn, a little lake next to the house where the house finally falls into. The big door was also nice and squeaky. There was also the bloody sister.

There is the single effect thingy. The first sentence is really long and stuff. It also places the subject last, creating suspense. It gives the feeling of death. It continues the tone of the story.

The plot has the narrator goes to the house. He observes the house and the surroundings. He sees Usher and describes him. He tells of Usher's problems. He tells of the problems of the house, family, afflictions with illnesses. They are dying. The narrator tells of the many hours with Usher. Heath's Question: "What does 'Virgiliae Mortuorum secundum Chorum Ecclesiae Maguntinae' mean?" Madeline dies and the narrator gets one glipse while placing her in the don jon. There were noises and a storm and they were reading a story. The story parallels the actual happenings. Usher knows about the live burial and that was the noises. She kills her brother and the narrator leaves and the house disappears.

Questions include: the parallels between Usher's psyhi and the interior of the house. There was little light and the furniture was old and profused and tattered. There was reddish light from the red crusted windows with somber tapistry on the walls. The floors are black with phantom-like (phantasmagoric) armor trophies around. His mind always was closed, gloomy, dark, sad, neglected, and horrible. Usher can't listen to music other than stringed instruments. He is hypersensitive to stimulus.

Class 11-14-96

We already talked about the relation between the interior and Usher's mind. The fall in the title means the end of the dynasty of the Usher and the house falls down and Usher fell to die and the season is autumn (fall). The end of the story is ambigious because the house is completely covered up and gone. The house just sinks. The ambiguity of how or why the sister came back around. Exactly how does Usher die? The house was evil and got screwed, or the narrator was insane. Usher said the house was living and the house kills itself. The single effect might be melacholy because it just kinda was lonely and empty. It wasn't really scary. Poe might have tried to get irrational terror.

Imagery is the way in which the writer appeals to the senses. There are certain images that evoke certain things in us. I just wanted to try to touch on some of the images that evoke feelings of melancholy of fear or terror specifically from The House of Usher. Poe setups up certain scenes to evoke stuff. The house was gloomy, decadent, and was described as a house of gloom. The description of the dark bog gave a new impression of water. The red light through the windows and the crimson moon contain a connotation of blood and Satan. Usher's description is weird and looks dead. There is the sound of the steps during the reading of the story to the Usher. The storm also has a sound.

The Cask of Amontillado (R2.8)

The narrator has a grudge against a wine drinking Fortunado who comes during some night and tells him of the cask of Amontillado. They go together to the crypt. Fortunado has a cough. They drink and they talk of their heritage and the narrator tells him that he is of the Masons, the brotherhood, referring most likely to the freemasons. They go deeper into the catacomb. Fortunado finds the Amontillado and the narrator encases the guy inside a wall. Fortunado finds the treasure and calls back to the narrator, who finishes the rest of the wall.

Class 11-15-96

Amontillado is a type of sweet alcohol and a pipe is a type of cask. There is visual imagery (ref. 25-40) with "deep, down, dark, damp" as well as audatory stimulus with jingling of the bells. This makes the basement seem very quiet. With a tactile as well as visual image, "white web work" is a further example. Nitre is a potassium compound. Fortunato said "Two fullness? Morbs" He is reckless and insulted the narrato. This leads to his death as he has not foresight. Water on the bones is another image and method of further fear as they go under the river. There is also kinetic image where death leads with the arm (Ref. 65).

The Masque of the Red Death

There was a Prince Prospero during the time of the plague. The encampment was made so that it was hard to get in and out. There was masquerades and twisting halls as well as a loud clock. The masqued people move back to their apartements. There was another masqued person. There was Red Death who Prospero unmasked. Prospero tries to kill him but he dies. Slowly the rest of the crowd died.


Images can describe something but not really give us the details, just compare it to something else. Imagery creates true and definative statements and allows the author to control your mind. Imagery can be classified by the senses: sight, auditory, smell, taste, and touch and motion (kinematic and kinesthetic).

Class 11-22-96

Poe strived that every sentence, even the first one, should build the single effect. Mr. Carlson claims that it is present in the first paragraph. The effect might be a feeling, reaction of the reader, or vicarious experience. For Red Death, there is the horror of blood and the fear of death.

A masque is a dramatic entertainment based on mythology in 16th and 17th centuries. It also could be a masquerade. This is part of the background required to understand the images and stuff inside the work. The mentioning of the Gothic style is probably significant to some degree, however, the setting in time is unrevealed. This style is dark and ornate and it transcends architecture and become more psychological. Gothic Novels are horror and stuff, Poe.

A suggested organization should combine the organization with types such as aural and visual, then systems that suggest an underlying commonality, then specific images within the types.

How Imagery Works

  1. Associations - things you link with other words or images
  2. Imagination
  3. Connotation - meanings suggested by words and images including the suggestions that are implicated beyond the literal meanings of the words


  1. How do the images help me experience the story?
  2. How does it help me experience the "single effect"?
  3. Which images are vivid and appeal to me? Why? How does Poe use this vivid appeal?

New England Renaissance, 1840-1855

The nation was now stable from the outside, and new politicians started comming in. They had to address separatist issues.

The cities were booming and there were hotels as well as the Lowell factories. Technology, transportation, and the continual movement west shaped all of American history. The workers had less and less and thought more of striking. Women began to speak out for rights and anti-slavery. There were utopian communities that floped. They also moved to public adult and child education.

Emerson pushed to have America have its own mind and not listen to Europe. There was Thoreau, Melville, and Hawthorne, in New England, Longellow, Holmes, Whittier, and Lowell. There was the Transcendental movement which, lead by Thoreau, states that there is intuitive knowledge that is superexperiencial. This was not really religious but Channing preached about it. This influenced literature, religion, and philosophy. There was a central news publication, The Dial which was edited by a woman, but it lacked focus like the movement itself. Emerson wanted the back to nature thing with his community Brook Farm. Likeqise Thoreau's thingalso did the nature thing with Walden Pond (a body of water). Melville and Hawthorne were anti-Transcendental and wrote Moby Dick and the Scarlet Letter respectively. Hawthorne reflected on Puritans, his heritage as Melville was a mand trying to find middle ground with himself. There was a lot of poetry especially with the Fireside Poets, Whittier, Holmes, Longellow, and Lowell. Emily Dickenson began her rise (1890). The writers were factionalized like politics.

Class 11-18-96

History is within this book to show the background of the people and why they wrote. The style of writing was influenced by the history and stuff. They also give you a cultural history. A cultural construct says you are solely a part or product of your culture. The examination of the culture and the literture must be simultaneous.

American Renaissance

This is also termed the New England Renaissance. This is a literary expression of cultural "wave". This term is solely reserved for the literary expression. The wave could be termed a conjunction of publishing, establishment of instutitions, and the developement of personal networks. Publishing included the start of women's magazines, increase of newspapers, and addition of pamphlets. There was the advent of public education with both the child and the adult (lyceum). There were new religions and the Second Great Awakening. Personally, the people knew each other like Melville, Hawthorne, and Emerson, Thoreau.

There were reform movements such as temperence, utopianism, education, feminism, and abolitionism. There was the experimental communes.

Comentary: The Renaissance probably should not be defined as just the literary side. I would argue that publishing, instutions, and literary groups are continual and thus are not a basis for the term of Renaissance.


This is a part of the American Renaissance. This is more like Romanticism. This started in religion and philosophy. It got the idea from Kant who said that there was knowledge that is intuitive, but not experienced. Unitarian clerics broke off from the Puritans in 1815 and more liberal. An epistomology is a way of knowing, which applicable to the transcendentals and was construed into learning through intuition. This stated that the real truth was beyond the senses and is present in the Oversoul which was the shared soul of everything.

Nature -- Ralph Waldo Emerson

Emerson was at first a Harvard graduate living between 1803 and 1882. He was a Unitarian teacher then a minister who quit for better things. His first wife died and he married another and became richer. He hung out with the Transcendentalists. The essay called nature is the unofficial statement of the Transcendental belief. He was in fact their leader, focusing on the human spirit and its relation to nature and society. This fell in line with Plato's theory that all things exist on a supernatural constant plane. His graduation speech ripped on Christianity.

He says that nature is perfect and he is uplifted from it. He forgets all the petty things in life and goes higher. But this thing must be used in temperence as too much is bad.

Class 11-20-96

In Nature, there is a lack of exacting logic and reasons. It possibly compared to naturalist and biologist essays. Self-Reliance is good with the self work and ethics. Then the later points where it says to ignore the shuns of society is wierd.


One must work to get stuff. Society is a social contract and you are the guids. It is not bad to be misunderstood, because you could know more than others.

This guy is way too preachy and messed up. It sounds too much like Ellen G. White. It really is not literature, although people like Hugo did it.

Book Questions

Henry David Thoreau

He grew up in Massachusetts. He didn't like corporal punishment and quit school to teach at a school. This he had to abandon because of his brother's illness and later he moved in with Emerson and later livied in Walden Pond, a utopian society. He summarized his experiences in the best transcendentalist book, Walden. Walden is lopsided and reports only the good religiously with out religion and is very odd. There was the Mexican war that determined the soutther Mexico American border. Walden is presented in a style that encourages us to think, thus acheiving its purpose.

Civil Disobedience, excerpt

He likes the idea of a small government. He said it doesn't have tradition and people are using it to their advantage. Most americans and the stuff that happen is a result of the people, not the government. I want a better, less governing, government, not really the absence of one.

Gandhi used Thoreau's ideas in his movements. This lead to Martin Luther King's rebellions. In modernity, people follow Thoreau into the wilderness. Annie Dillard records her thoughts as she lives in the wilderness with a mystical naturalist view. Edward Abbey feels love inside nature and isolation and detests land "improvements." He is an anti-technologist.

Class 11-21-96

This sounds anarchic like Newtgrich, militias, French Revolution, and the Unabomber. He wants a better government and would support tax cut. Thoreau was in jail for not paying his taxes, so if the government oppose the good of humanity, a citizen must clog the machinery called government.

When if ever is defiance of the law justified? When it is unconstitutional or violates a higher authority. Higher authority encompasses UN documents, constitution, declaration of independence, tracts from religious documents, godly intervention, and natural rights of self-determination especially with regard to Darwinian theory. You must, as a member of society, do the greatest good for the greatest number, this includes long term repercussions as a result of your actions. You are allowed to respond to any threat against your person with adquete defensive force but you are not allowed to take preemptive actions that limit any of the rights given by the higher authorities to another member of society.

Additional reasons include: "Eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth." Law can be broken for revenge and enforcement with respect to adequet privacy. You can steal only from the government. You can't break civil rights laws. The act of defiance must have some semblence of order. You can't steal Jocelyn's car. Kidnapping is illegal as well as any other federal offense. All money expeditures must be explained in detail (down to the cent). Suicide is legal. Abortion is illegal. All the time, laws were meant to be broken.

The Scarlet Letter

The first fourty four pages are an essay, "A Custom House," and have no relavence to the plot. It mentions Hawthorne's family history which originally came around the time of the Mayflower. He later became an ambassador during Pierce's administration. This essay satirizes the customs officials and it also reveals a ficticious reason how the story came about. There is a double story, the first that precedes the other, setting it up and making it more justified. This is part of the literary tradition to explain his origins of his story.

The story originates from some object. There was a rag, formerly shaped into a scarlet A. This was the puzzle to be solved of how it was used. There was some paper near the letter which told of the Hester Prynne story. She, as an old person, went around the towns helping people out. I'll be making up the rest of the facts from the written, Mr. Surveyor Pue's, outline.


The author's preface to the second edition reaffirms his introductory sketch.

I'll talk of my htree years in a Custom House. I can't say what P. P., Clerk of this Parish did because it would not be right. There, in my younger days was a wrecked wharf. There is the government now with an huge eagle. People in the custom hous just slept and slacked off. There is a tin pipe as some redements of communication. There was the Locofoco Surveyor who is Puritanic, a mixture of good and evil as well as a solier, legislator, and judge. I'm of Puritan heritage so there is a lot of me in this place. I was part of the Custom house where they were relaxed. They were all Whigs except for the Democrat who fortunately wasn't a politician. When there was a vessel that was out of code or procedure, they would lock it down very well. The officers were in their prime, but they were sluggish. There was the dry father of the place, the Inspector. He would eat and remember stuff and recount the extensive memories that he experienced. You had to know him from his experiences at Ticonderoga. The Custom's house seemed like the perfect system. I had tried those Utopian Communities, but they didn't work. I was Surveror of Revenue. The imprint that all taxable goods bear was our "fame."

In the back of the house there were tons of record. The pre-revolutionary ones were at Halifax when the British pulled out. Inside Mr. Pue's stuff, there was as scarlet letter "A." I was obsessed with it and read the brief note that was next to it. I used that as my outline and thought of the play between Pryne, then an old woman, and Pue. What happened in the old Customs House? Could I write this book? I got restless at the house. I finally finished the text.

Chapter 1: The Prison Door

The early Puritans tried to for a perfect society, but there were the few messed up things that stick out like Anne Hutchinson.

Chapter 2: The Market-Place

To be another religion was to be chased out of town. Hester Prynne is brought to trial. The "A" was decorative and people didn't like it. She held her child of three months close. People murmured about the decorative and well made letter. This was offense that would have brought the guillotine. She remembered her father and her other acquaitances. But no one was there. She and her child and the letter was the only reality.

Chapter 3: The Recognition

There is a stranger that pays attention to her and the passerby tells her that she is a Mistress. She was married to an Englishman who stays in Amsterdam. She had been sentence to three hours on the pillory then life with the letter. The governor arrived with clergy. They want him to tell the name of the other person.

Chapter 4: The Interview

Hester is in the jail again. She's alright, but her baby, still nursing, is convulsing. They call in the doctor and Roger Chillington, refered to as a scholar. The doctor asks the jailer to leave and he gives a potion to Hester and her baby. He had learned from alchemists and seems like a flake, but back then, who knows. Chillington is old and married with Hester. He accepts them but does not publically because he doesn't want the messed up thing of a faithless wife.

Chapter 5: Hester at her Needle

Hester is isolated from the world in her cabin overlooking a pond on a peninsula. There she works making clothes for the poor who are less miserable than she is. She also makes money for herself and her child by making stuff like her "A" for others. She dresses herself in the drab things with only the "A" as a decoration and dresses her daughter in the most expensive clothes. When she comes anywhere in town, people look at her, the "A" burns, and children, learning from their parents holler. She is cold and rejects children and the rest of society and lives a living death, a martyr.

Chapter 6: Pearl

Hester's child is named Pearl. She takes her whenever she goes into public. Pearl is well-proportioned and fit to be in Eden, however, her character is another story. She never made any friends. Hester was not a good parent and didn't teach Pearl right and wrong. She just let the child to her own whims. This created a bratty child who gazed into her mother, making her gasp for breath and clutch the "A." She denounces the Heavenly Father and is an enigma to her mother of what she really is.

Chapter 7: The Governor's Hall

Bellingham lives in posh house with indentured servants. Pearl sees a brestplate and it magnifies the scarelet "A" and she cries for the red rose. Hester wanted to see if someone else could better raise Pearl.

Chapter 8: The Elf Child and the Minister

They seek to determine if the child is fit for Christianity. They say okay, but are shocked by the child. Hester defends for Pearl and Dimmesdale kind of does it too. Chillingworth notices Dimmesdale. Hester leaves with the child and calls the governor's wife a witch.

Chapter 9: The Leech

Chillingworth had hid himself being a good doctor and a man of great learning. Dimmesdale was getting sicker and sicker. They chatted together a lot. The townspeople said that Dimmesdale would die because he was to heavenly to stay on the earth. Chillingworth and Dimmesdale lived in the same house so that they would be able to cure him. Chillingworth had done magical things of curing. He played with doubling drugs and stuff. His old face was sooty from the fire, the devil or one of his agents was in Chillingworth.

Chapter 10: The Leech and his Patient

Chillingworth and Dimmesdale have a discussion about some plant growing out of the heart of a dead man in his grave. Hester and Pearl goes along and Pearl says to flee from the wicked Black man, Chillingworth. Dimmesdale is shocked by Chillingworth's comments. Chillingworth later "poisons" a book so that Dimmesdale is knocked out, he opens the clothes of Dimmesdale and sees something. Chillingworth has this evilness to him as he had found it.

Chapter 11: The Interior of a Heart

Chillingworth drops subtle hints at Dimmesdale. Dimmesdale spends time looking at his face and whipping himself. He rose to greateness and in this reflective time he sees himself and Hester pointing at his chest and at her "A."

Chapter 12: The Minister's Vigil

No one saw what Dimmesdale was doing. He whipped himself in secret and performed other punishments. Only Chillingworth saw this. Dimmesdale in the night went up to the scaffold. He sees stuff. Pearl had witchcraft in her. Hester and Pearl came and joined him. There was a meteor with the letter "A." Chillingworth sees it all. He leads Dimmesdale home after Dimmesdale says he is afraid of the man. Dimmesdale refuses to join Hester and Pearl on the stand at noon.

Chapter 13: Another View of Hester

Hester wants to rescue Dimmesdale. The Town had individually forgiven her, but she isolated herself wit the "A" and Pearl. Pearl is now seven and there is a love for her heart.

Chapter 14: Hester and the Physician

She wants to reveal Chillingworth. He argues that what he has done to Dimmesdale was good, otherwise he would have died. She says you surround him and make him live in death. Chillingworth has definately changed and become the devil.

Chapter 15: Hester and Pearl

Hester hates Chillingworth and he has done a bigger crime than Dimmesdale. Pearl knowws the meaning of the "A" is equal to Dimmesdale's habit of covering his heart. Hester doesn't say what those mean.

Chapter 16: A Forest Walk

Pearl again questions about the letter and the Black Man who is rumored to give it to people. She also comments that the sunshine never reaches Hester so she runs to catch it. Dimmesdale was watching from behind and covered his heart.

Chapter 17: The Pastor and His Parishoner

Hester calls Dimmesdale and he comes. They wonder if each of them were dead. Then they discuss their condition. Hester says that Chillingworth is her husband and Dimmesdale is shocked and refuses to forgive, but after being pressed into it [Hester's bosom] Dimmesdale relents. The minister wants to die and doesn't want to go to Europe, but he will go with Hester.

Chapter 18: A Flood of Sunshine

They are happier and Hester takes off her "A." She becomes beautiful again. Pearl, decked in flowers comes to them.

Class Supplements


Page 80 has Hester examining other people as well as their sins. The letter allows to feel the sins of others. This might be somewhat revengeful.

Hester's remanentes of adultery remain decorated like Pearl and the letter but she is plain. Chillingworth says to keep him secret or he will turn the guy in.

Class Note Form

[Take a legal sheet of paper and fold it once lengthwise and twice in the other axis, resulting in eight squares. Orientate the paper in landscape form.]

Historical Perspective  Hester             Setting                 Dimmesdale      

Pearl                   Chillingworth      Sin, Guilt, and         Language        

Vocab                   Symbols            Puritan Character and   Light and Dark  

Table 2: Scarlet Letter Note Format

Historical & Author's Perspective

  1. Hawthorne's attitude: See Literary Terms: Tone -- Class 12-11-96 on page 28.
  2. The feminist attitude is due to the historical proximity to the Seneca Convention (1848). Reference to page 152. The whole society will change and women need more than thought.


  1. She is described on page 49-50. Initial impressions suggest that the dark hair and eyes is evil; however, the description further illustrates her beauty and self-determination. She uses her child to cover the "A." She has pride and dignity, almost defiant and unabashed and not embarassed, and comes out of the jail with head up and has a fancy dress (49). Wearing a dress that wouldn't be from a jail, Hester is tall, elegant, and it doesn't really relate to the evil theory and the jailed criminal.
  2. In chapter 13, her image in the community has changed and she has more respect. She's becoming a Mother Theresa type and people say that the "A" is for able.
  3. Hawthorne tells us that Hester did a lot of thinking and speculation by herself (151). She thinks thoughts that no other person thinks. She wants to kill Pearl. The Scarlet Letter had not worked. She speculates and thinks independently. She thinks of suicide murder and feminism. The whole society will change and women need more than thought.
  4. She does more speculation as the letter allowed her to learn from Shame Despair and Solitude. They taught her strenght but also bad things (183).
  5. Dimmesdale doesn't want to go alone to Europe. They talk of the weather and health. Hester talks about Chillingworth. Dimmesdale is a weenie! Chillingworth's revenge was a greater sin.


  1. On page 52, Hawthorne describes the scaffold. It is wood and located in the town square and serves as a platform for a pillory which is at shoulder height. It serves its purpose by embarassing people. Hester, on the platform, allowed her to see the places of her life (55).


  1. He asks her to tell who did it (62). He had to have a little courage to fake the platform scene as we don't know yet, but he was the father. He was confident in his good image as a preacher. He is starting to feel a little guilty.
  2. He is a man of religion which contrasts to Chillingworth, the scientist. This is an interesting contrast.
  3. He and Chillingworth is changing appearance (110 & 104). He put his hand on his heart when he was shocked. He's pale and emaciated and nervous. He might have chronic fatigue syndrome. He's probably guilty and this haunts him.
  4. See Hester 5.


  1. (Page 82) Pearl seems to make herself higher than her mom. She yells at and throws rock at the kids who bug her or her mom. This relationship is Hester's fear of Pearl, the life, what she could become, what she is, evil, un-Puritan, changable/moody. Pearl could have been her punishment. Hester's evil act spawned evil, Pearl. (83) Pearl seems to have a lot of potential, but it's all in disorder. Hester is afraid of only Pearl and sees only the negative side. Pearl is called an imp, sprite, witch, fiend, and elf which are some tiny fairy type of thing, suggesting a supernatural thing resulting from the un-Puritaness. (89) Pearl has been facinated with the letter. She was thought that Pearl was the child of the devil. Anything outside the religion is said to be the demon.
  2. [My own thoughts: Pearl is really acting as a manifestation of Hester's concience which questions and constantly attempts to unvail the truth.]


  1. This is Hester's husband that sees her in the marketplace (56). He seems to be calm and intelligent in this marketplace encounter. "He perhaps a scholar of the human soul, psychologists and definately a student of alchemy and a doctor of medicine" (55, chapter 4, 57). [I don't accept this yet. I think the book does not support this.] "Alchemy is a hidden and more secretive thing, an occult." He has Vulcan self-control. He doesn't want to accept Hester, the faithless wife.
  2. On page 70, he vows to track down the bastard that Hester screwed. He says he'll use some ESP to see the guy. Obsessed and vengeful, he'll track him down like knowledge in books. He could feel this way because he left her, the dude screwed her, she is taking too much blame, and he above all is jealous, envy and needs honor. He can't be a normal person.
  3. Chapter 7, 8: Hester really puts Dimmesdale on edge and Chillingworth sees what's happening. They had congregated to examine the parenting of Hester. Chapter 9: The leech is Chillingworth, the doctor, who attaches himself to Dimmesdale (111). Chillingworth had said earlier on page 70 that he would seek him like searching in texts and ESP. Chillingworth thought the illness was part of Dimmesdale's past and screws up the patient doctor relation and wants all the secrets (113).
  4. Chillingworth is more of a scientist, but Dimmesdale is religious. It is an interesting contrast.
  5. His and Dimmesdale's appearance is changing (103). His face was getting darker, more evil and ugly. His shoulder is growing bigger. He might be getting obsessed. By page 56, the powerful intelligence molds the body to the thoughts.

Sin, Guilt, and Punishment

  1. See Chillingworth 2: He's not going to kill him or defame him or expose him or turn him in. He'll leave it to heaven. But the messed up guy will be his.
  2. The "A" detects the hidden sins of others (80). This could be some stuff of revenge.



  1. sumptuary - dealing with dress or clothing (50)


  1. The ornate "A" is a acronym standing for adultery, but it also seems to be diffentiating factor, like a spell, between her and the rest of the society (50-51). This fertile and luxurious "A" was made by Hester in jail.
  2. See Light and Dark 8

Puritan Character and Society

Light and Dark

  1. Speaking of Hester on the platform: "hot midday sun" "lighting up the face" "happy shadow of a home" (59)
  2. Belligham: "wore a dark feather in his hat" (60)
  3. Wilson: "gray eyes" (61)
  4. Speaking of Pearl: "brilliant," "sunshine" (81) "dark peculiarity," "radience" (82) "illuminated by the morning radience" (83)
  5. Chapter 12: On the scaffold, Dimmesdale is in the dark. The light from the meteor was red and illuminated the scene. (141) Hester's platform was lighted by the sun.
  6. Hester takes off stuff and is beautiful, radient, light and shadowy hair, beaming eyes, and the sunshine comes out (185). This is love. The lack of love is in page 150 where Affection is capitalized.
  7. Chillingworth is dark.
  8. The letter "glimmered" and gave off some sort of beneficial light and hope to the sick or needy (148). The letter and Pearl have the same quality of lightness as symbols of Hester's guilt (168).

Light                                    Dark               

Pearl - by childhood, question of evil   Hester - by        
kid (dark)                               passion            

Pre-Hester                               Chillingworth      

Letter                                   Bellingham         



Table 3: Light and Dark

Literary Terms: Tone

Tone is more than the attitude, it is also the way the author makes the attitude apparent. The author has feelings to the material and to the reader. Humor can be created by somthing to laugh at, something inconsistent, isolation from danger, and newness. There is also irony in verbal, situational, or dramatic. One can understate, overstate (hyperbole), or double entendre (double meaning). There is cosmic irony dealing with fate.

Class 12-11-96

There is a difference between attitude and tone. The subject could be: sex and sin; sin, guilt, and pride. This is stated as, "guilt, passion, and anguish," on page 61. Hawthorne seems to hate the Puritans. Hawthorne implies, by connotations, that he doesn't really like the melded religion and law of the Puritan society (47). This gives a glimpse that the Puritans are intolerent of outsiders. [MY THOUGHTS: This seems to be a limited example which could have been framed to set the mood of the scene and further develop the scene, character, and plot.] On page 80, Hester sees sins in the passerby. Dimmesdale is also a hypocrite.

There is the question of his tone to Hester. Hawthorne seems to sympathize with Hester. He describes what others think of Hester in a satirical sense and mockery. [MY THOUGHTS: If we examine the story by assuming that Hawthorne supports and condones the ideas of the protagonist, our analysis holds. We should look on the interior of Hester and examine that as Hawthorne's debate.] Hawthorne doesn't mock the letter.

Poe Addendum

Refer to page 16. The topic sentence should blatantly and painfully state the obvious main idea. Topic sentences can be everywhere (including the previous paragraph). You must make the quote an almost functional part of your sentence. All block quotes (four lines of more of text) must be single spacéd, indented, smaller font, and not quotation marks, citation appears after final punctuation. "Poe writes," "In this quote," and "Poe says" are unnecessary and just quote the material. Add page numbering to quotes and use a colon if it is relatively unreleated to the material. Submit previous drafts, change the modified fonts, and state the conclusion option that is used (Vicki handout, Nov. 21, 96).