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Kenneth Kang
Tuesday, December 17, 1996
End of First Semester

History Notes


Enduring Vision, Enduring Land

Americans, including those who cross over the ice bridge, all came for a better land. The expanse of land signified the first major dream or value, but it spawned new ideas, principles, and opinions. A basic principle is the idea of freedom, economic, religious, political, etc. Freedom alone is loneliness, society must come withi it. Thus the question of society versus the individual is once again raised. America has not lived to these standards, but it is attainable. This hope to ameliorate the land is continuing, and hence creates the vision in American history.

An Ancient Heritage

The identity of the land transformed over time. The initial greed and possension of land transmuted into a creation of an entity of the land itself. And before it, the development of the land by the American indians and the geologic developments shaped this setting for future humans. The land mass was created 3 billion years ago and spawned plant life which created modern fossil fuel reserves. Only 180 million years ago did the landmasses drift apart. Human history only occupies the last hundred thousand years of that time. During the dinosaurs the Western mountains formed, and even now the continuing volcanic activity on Hawaii signifies the continual change. Then 2 million years ago, glaciers came and covered most of America.

The Continent and Its Regions

As temperatures rose, the natural cycle of life came again, creating beautif ul America that this known today

The West

Remaining essentially untouched, Alaska has the highest North American peak and the tundra, taiga, and artic climats. Its coast runs down the west coast which has few natural harbors, but magnifcent views. The Pacific winds create a consistent weather pattern, and the Rocky Mountains isolate the west from the east. Slightly east of the immediate Pacific is the Great Basin which held ancient glacial meltoff, but now is home to salty lakes. Next comes the Rockies which run from Alaska to South America. In the deserts of Arizona, the first cultivation occured as Indians made elborate irrigation systems.

The Heartland

Using the Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, and Great Lakes, the Heartland has good mineral resources. The mining of those resources has deposited silt downstream, causing problems with flooding. The New Oreleans delta of the Mississippi holds rich soil and wildlife. These rivers were products of glaciation and carried rich soils that were deposited on the plains. The eastern and northern areas were once forested and gave way to miles of plains. Now this area is used for farming.

The Atlanic Seaboard

The eroded, coal exploited Appalachian Mountains boarder on the east coast. The south has had its share of excessive cultivation, while the north was stifled by the glaciated landscape. The climate ranges from subtropical to a temperate climate in the norther inlands. Large rivers drain into the Atlantic, creating natural ports. Also important to the coast is the continental shelf which can extend up to 250 miles out to sea, and the southern sandy beaches are tormented by tropical storms. The seas between Europe and America are plagued by an easterly wind and water current as well as icebergs. This land nonetheless was sought after for its fish. The indians had used a slash and burn technique but wanders among locales, allowing the land to heal. The Europeans did not and thus screwed with the land.

A Legacy and a Challenge

Being so distant from the old world, it seemed like their problems were gone, but with rapid development, the land has been utterly used and now we're discovering our new problems. The evolution from possesor to the possessed or even partners can let this continent live on.

Class 9-3-96


Term                     Definition                                              

Continental              located in the Rocky Mountains and determins the flow   
DivideContinental        of water                                                
Divide                                                                           

HeartlandHeartland       In the center is the Mississippi River which created a  
                         fertile and flat valley bounded by the Appalachians     
                         and the Rockies                                         

BayouBayou               Swampland, especially at the mouth of the Mississippi   

Great LakesGreat Lakes   With the aid of the Lawrence River, empties into the    
                         Atlantic.                                               

PiedmontPiedmont         The eastern foothills of the Appalachians               

TidewaterTidewater       The Carolinas                                           

NortheastNortheast       did not have good soil                                  



Table 1: Geographic Terms

America Before Columbus

[Skipped]

New World Peoples on the Eve of European Contact

In 1492, with 75 million people, the American Indians lived among great cultural diversity.

Family and Community

The commonality of the family created a society, complete with obligations. Kinship formed greater bonds than marridge and the idea of an extended family were carried out. A interkinship disagreement might cause a prolonged war, which was common, but these wars were lower key than the European ones. Women produced much of the food in these tribes. The special exception in the Southwest which had extremely dense populations. Women in this society held the property and the inheritence.

Indian Religion and Social Values

They explained the creation through myths. They had a mystical power which was the unexplained. They often sought spiritual power through quests. Seeking guidence they turned to shamans, or healers. The society kept together with strict rules and consensus. They gave and expected a return. Trade was a show of good will and kindness. They never accumulated goods, but rather gave them away. The reciprocity made the basis for Indians from nature to society. They were competative for presitege nonetheless. Endurence was key to prevent a disaterous breakdown of their society.

Digression: Cahokia in 1200

Encompassing 6 square miles, mounds, and cities, Cahokia at the meeting point of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, was a product of alliances. This was constructed as the Indians turned to agriculture for food. With food, easy farming, this city could have been a capital for a nation state. There were artisans, leaders, and workers to help build the enormous mounds. Most of the dead were buried in mass graves, while the "king" was buiried with his 50 "wives" and servants in a high mound. The food, wood, tribute, trade started decreasing in the 1200s and the town collapsed as others like it rose.

Conclusion

Isolation shaped the early societies, flora, and fauna of America. The Indians were developed and had a working society. In the 1500s the Europeans came to take their land away.

Class 9-3-96

The North American inhabitants were diverse with over 100 major languages. Rotating crops and fields as well as slash and burn made land friendly agriculture. They had had their large artisan and metropolitan communities which had contact with Middle America.

They provided more rights to women. They believed in spirits encompassing nature. They also were thought to be owned by the land. Kinship was absolutely necessary for the strict consesus and community of the tribe. This culture was also matrilineal, or the inheritence traveled along the females. Leadership was earned.

The Old World Meets the New

On October 12, 1492, Christopher Columbus found the new world. They found tobacco and gold nose rings. Columbus enjoyed this but thought it was Asia. To the natives, they were ugly and had much "magic". The Europeans thought of these people as lower things.

Old World Peoples

It stretched its web of relationships from Africa, Europe and Siberia.

West Africa and Its Peoples

Disease and winds isolated West Africa. People moved in about 3000 B.C. The arabic peoples imposed taxes and also wrote down laws. Coastal West Africa was less significant. During the fifteenth century, others cam in search of gold and slaves.

Africans had preistgods. Like the native Americans, they also relied on kinship. They paid a sum to the bride's kin, not to buy her, but a bond for good behavior. Land was also responsibly held as it honored the dead. They used slash and burn techniques on the infertile land.

They believed in one being which also permeated the whole world. They also relied on magic and unlike the Americans, revered the dead. The people had a great history in the arts like scupture, oration, and song. There were the Islamic influence from traders as well as Christian missionaries who they themselves had little impact until the nineteenth century.

European Culture and Society

The Renaissance attempted to define the world. They stressed stability and order in the wavering world. Democracy meant mob rule at this time because kings stood at the top of the chain who normally sought more power versus the nation's goals. The female queens would wind up giving the throne to some other family so they remained virgin.

Elizabeth I successfully controled England and her Parliament. The upper classes were suffering because of the economic stagnation. Peasants comprised 70 to 80 percent of the population and suffer with the mercurial harvests. They population exploded and the peasants, without paperwork, were often stripped of even their communal holdings. The towns became crowded and dirty. The people went to the towns for jobs. The population growth created unemployment and messed up England. Some blamed the wealthy and others, everybody.

The conservative moralists said to be reciprocal and make fair and resonble prices and wages. Italians had been thw ones pushing profit, and people went money crazy. The Europeans ignored moreal standards and took this to the New World. Although the family made efforts to keep together, they grew apart so now the father took is Biblical role as leader of the house.

Europeans and Their God

They saw a God that was and was to be obeyed. They abhored witchcraft. The church was said to have been made to save sinners from hell, but they perform sacrements and claim to enact Christ's sacrifice every Mass. The papacy had great power with indulgences and pure authority to dictate "religious" life. Indulgences sparked Martin Luther to start the Reformation. He thought you cannot buy salvation, but instead you must love. This gave power from the pope to the states to permit Luther's protest. Many protestants interpreted the Bible differently. The Catholics had already launched their counter-Reformation in Spain. This gave the people:

  1. All the religions for North America
  2. An emphasis on literacy
  3. Power over religious interpretation, priests are not the only ones who can understand God
  4. A sense of empowerment, leading to evagelic crusades

Still, Catholic simiplicity was sought with the steadiness of duty. This was not the end of religious differences, as in 1527 Henry of England broke off from Rome.

The Rise of Puritanism in England

Protestantism continued its rise in England during Edward VI (r. 1547-1553). As a result of Bloody Mary, Puritans demanded the removal of the Catholic like Church of England. They wanted, as well as the Separatists, that congregations should be self-governing. Puritan congregations had a initiation. During bad economic times, people doubted the possibility of joining the saintly Puritans. They had a strict code of ethics and a high level of self discipline. Elizabeth was protestant, hated by the Catholics, and hated the Puritans.

Discussion 9-4-96

This approach emphasizes the mixture of cultures as the formation of the United States. The rice growing had been imported by the Africans. This extends the melting pot of European cultures into a larger conglomeration of a more global sense.

Focus on West Africa

They experienced the most contact with the Europeans and had the most advanced civilizations. They produced the most slaves. Isalmic influence aids in the assimilation, trade, and first contact. They had better adapted to the climate in the Tidewater.

European Period

They were undergoing the Renaissance, the rebirth of science and arts, and the Reformation, the ditching of strict Catholic control. This encouraged exploration and the discovery of lands as well as science and invention, like the printing press.

These revitalized and created Protestantism. This encouraged individualism. Protestant and Counter Reformation encouraged more conversion. To America, the Puritan developments are especially important.

Demographic changes were also occuring. With a market economy, the rise of joint-stock companies, and rapid population growth, unemployment rises. Unemployment was also increased by enclosure. The unemployment flocked toward the towns. Thus justifying expansionism to combat overpopulation and the disorder that unemployment carries. Expansionism also allowed more wealth.

The Age of Discovery and the Beginnings of European Dominance

Before Columbus, the Europeans had been interested in the East and had even found America, but they had left it alone.

Seaborne Expansion

They sought to gain commerical advantages overseas. They developed better ships and navigatin equipment. They tried to get accurate translation of old texts but wound up correcting them. They circumvented the Arabs and tried to trade directly. They got naval power and made contact with Blacks.

The "New Slavery" and Racism

The new slavery was almost equal to free people. The Muslims introduced the Europeans to slaves. These slaves though whites were savage. The Portugese establish West African trading posts. Kongo, not near a trading post, used slave trade to advance itself but later decayed.

Slaves were mostly war victims. The new slavery shipped in the millions and were worked like machines. Finally, the black color was so ingrained in slavery that societies despised the blacks.

Europeans Reach America

Religion motivated Columbus to come to the West Indies, and to stop the Portugese dominance on the EuroIndian trade route. Others had reach America before him, but Columbus sold his discovery. He had used Marco Polo's and Ptolemy's wrong estimates. The Spainish then signed the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) splitting the world with Portugal.

England contested and sent John Cabot who discovered Nova Scotia and Newfoundland before disappearing. In the 1500s the Portugese grabbed Brazil, and everyone knew that a huge hunk a land blocked them from Asia, and a mapmaker named it America. They still sought a Western passage, and Magellan and others didn't find one other than the Strait of Magellan.

The Conquerors

Spain would grant rights to conquistadores to exploit native labor and enslave Indians on encomiendas. The Indians quickly died under the harsh conditions, and this practice, even with African shipments, was banned.

In 1519, Hernán Cortés conquered Mexico. The Mexicans had elaborate engineering, artisans, and step pyramids. The natives had thought that these were white bearded gods, but they were wrong and were destroyed.

They sought to convert the remaining natives to Christianity. Smallpox ravaged the new land. Not only germs, but livestock was also transported in both directions. The populations also mixed and interbred. Spain became dependent on the wealth generated by the New World. Spain struggled as they lost their European side stablity as England and France rose to power.

Footholds in North America

Wealth attracted Europeans to America as early as 1510. All colonization attempst failed due to optimistic prediction of wealth during this century except for St. Augustine. Early in the next century, successful settlements by the English, Frnch, and Dutch were established.

New Spain's Norther Borderlands

They were not content with agriculture but wanted to conqueror and easily gain wealth. Juan Ponce de León conquered Puerto Rico (1512) and explored Florida (1521). Cabeza de Vaca explored much of the United States in search of wealth and with great speed so that the Indians were surprised (1536). Epidemics brought by the explorers killed off the remaining civilized Mississippi peoples. Soto, guided by Estevanico (1538), and later Francisco Vásquez de Coronado (1540), and Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo searched and failed to find goad.

They established St. Augustine, Florida with a chain of forts and missions, but the Indians rejected the missions and Spain left (1600). In the Southwest, Juan de Oñate setup encomiendas in 1598. The demands for mission labor and the failure to find gold created an Indian backlash.

Initial French Failures

The French identified the St. Lawrence and Mississippi Rivers as major enterences (1534). In 1541 and 1564 they failed, affirming the Spainish opinion that this coast is unproductive. The second one was destroyed by the Spainish.

Elizabethan England and the Wider World

England had its domestic problems as France andd Spain duked it out. Surplus Britons which caused the instability were shipped off. England was worried about Spainish power in the French civil war, Netherlands, and America. England dealt Ireland's rebellious forces with total war. They justified this with the label savage, setting the precedent for actions against American Indians. Their goal was to find a Northwest passage and to unseat the Spainish, which was done by pirateering. In 1584, Raleigh Barlowe established Roanoke Island for the Queen. These plans failed:

  1. not enough food for the first winter
  2. relied on natives for food while searching for gold
  3. needed private support
  4. Spainish

The English defeated the Spainish Armada and linked up with the Netherlands to finish Spain off. The invention of the joint-stock company allowed the massive fundraising to support a colony.

The Beginnings oe English Colonization: Virginia

The Spainish reliquished their claim to Virginian in 1604. England sent two competing colonial companies in 1607. The Virginia Company of Plymouth made a colony for two years then backed out. The Virginia Company of London failed at Jamestown because they thought gold would fall down. John Smith became the leader only after they had traveled to America. He laided down military like rules which minimized losses that first winter. He also negotiated with the Indians. He went back to England, and the colonists got messed. Reinforcements came again but the population remained low, 380 by 1616.

It became profitable when John Rolfe introduced tobacco in 1619. The company gave land to paying settlers while sought landowners to pay for them. They also had a council created (1619). They faced embezzelment, poor nutriction and Indian problems. They fought back with Irish war tactics. The poor management made England turn this into a Royal Colony.

French, Dutch, and Swidish Fur Colonies

The French started trading in Newfoundland. They dealth in reciprocal trade especially with the trinkets of glass. They setup permanent trading posts. They setup alliances with the tribes and missionaries. They slowly grew with the alliance.

The Dutch were at the peak of their empire. They established Albany, or Fort Nassau, and New Amsterdam (1614). It was a multiethnic settlement. The Indians got mad and they were screwed. The Iroquais as the French and Dutch intermediary got a lot of money. Iroquais and the Hurons went to war for beaver skins. With English help, the Dutch survived. The Sweedes established a rival colony which was annexed by the Dutch who lost other colonies as a result. The Sweedes left the log cabin.

The Origins of New England: Plymouth Plantation

Smith sought to take over the Indians, but the germs killed them. They were sent on the Mayflower with 102 people and would work for seven years to pay for the land (1620). They were separatist Puritans who didn't want to get Dutchified. They landed in the wrong place and signed a document founding a colony nonetheless. They formed a partnership with the Indians with guns and also reception of aid. The colonists armed and became self sufficient after the Virginia Massacre. By 1627 they were freed of financial obligations due to interest. They produced the self-reliant image and also brought more Puritans over.

Conclusion

The age of discovery marked the founding of America. The natives yielded only slowly to the incommers. They produced tobacco and depended on the Indians. They were minor now, but they were permanent.

Roanoke, 1584-1590

The indians have wasted this land. He kidnapped two indians to teach them English and civilization. They dreamed of establishing a colony in America. The indian core grew naturally, and the English liked that. They depended on the indians for food and eventually had to go back to England, leaving their blacks behind. Most of them went back, and somehow disappeared by 1590. They found only armor, books, and CROATOAN written. They had failed.

Document: A Discourse Concerning Wester Plantin 1584 Richard Hakluyt

ed. Charles Deane, Main Historical Society. Part of History of Maine Book. Cambridge 1877

During the first hundred year, the Europeans found little in America. They had little technology or control. The English needed to know more about America and got Spainish ships. Europeans are sent out to gather information. Richard Hakluyt studied the new geography. The following expresses the reasons for colonization.

It failed!

Exploration and Conquest 9-6-96

Map: Portuguese settled on South America because the Trety of Torsidies (spelling). The trade routes and explorations are shown.

Spain

Spain first explored the United States. Spain took over the Americas differently. These riches made Spain the richest country in the 17th century. They ruled with viceroys which had the king's authority extended into the colonies. They didn't settle into colonies, and thus interracial marridge. They efficiently extracted surface minerals but did not establish agriculture.

Godly Order and Slavery: Seventeeth-Century New England, Caribbean, and Chesapeake Society

Sarah Horbin in 1692 pondered the distrubution of her estate if she lost her son. She was part of the large amounts of English diaspora. The African population movement to the New World meant slavery rather than a new hope of economic and religious freedom. The Native Americans were wiped out by disease. The imbalence of peoples made the English top.

The New England Way

Smith made later expeditions for whales, but got fish (1616). The Pilgrims set out for this land (1620).

Errand into the Wilderness

The Puritans held significant influence over England (1600). As the economy worsened and James I came to power, the Puritans thought more of moving to New England. In 1625, Charles I tried to get rid of all Puritan influence. The English recession was blamed on the Puritans. In 1629, they got permission to settle between the Charles and Merrimack rivers.

A City upon a Hill

In 1630, en route to America, Charles Winthrop said that the colony shall be a utopia. "We shall be as a city upon a hill." There shall be rich showing mercy and charity to the poor. He promoted mild competition so that money would move but wanted economic cooperation. They sought a balence rather than extraction of wealth from the New World.

Development of Puritan Orthodoxy

The colony only suffered a 40% loss after the first winter. They considered themselves a part of the Anglican Church under self-governing congregations. They elected a board of elders rather than allowing a council of the wealthy to make church decisions. These churches were firmly tied to the local government. The elected saints had to describe their spiritual life and conversion expericence. This was called the conversion relation and would eventually go away.

They stressed education and required schools (1647, 1671). The parents were also told to educate their young in religion. The educated clergy was supposed to stimulate everyone. Harvard, founded in 1636, streesed an classical arts stuff and drank tons of beer. In 1648 Oxford said that Harvard was equivalent.

Dissenting Puritans

Some Puritans expressed radical ideas. Roger Williams stressed separation of church and state (arrived in 1631). Puritans thought that it should not be theocracy but they should cooperate. Roger feared the state would corrupt the saints. He was banished in 1635 and founded Rhode Island which tolerated religion. Anne Hutchinson was another dissention by saying that all saints must be free of influence from the non-elect. She undermined the clergy and gathered supporters for their own governer from 1636-1637. She was put on trial for heresy and was condemned and banished because she claimed a vision from God. Women were more restricted as a result. The close knit community was being challenged by merchants. They clashed with the govenrment. They were restricted to 5% above cost (1635). They needed to isolate this city on a hill from a market economy.

Puritan Expansion

The Indians were wiped out by disease and sold their land to the Puritans who wanted to convert them. As they moved inland, resistence came and with total war, the English won easily (1633).

Power to the Saints

The government of Massachusettes Bay was headquartered in America and was very democratic. Any saint could vote, not just landholders. In Connecticut, a similar government was adopted with landholding as a voting thing. New Haven adopted stricter sainthood requirements to limit the laxness of the governership. Town meetings were the central part of the government unlike the gentry elected courts in England. The New England legislatures gave land to several families to start a new town.

Community Life

Seaports were less knit because of the travelers. Each family would have a house lot within a half mile of the meeting house and several lots further away. England, on the other hand, wanted consolidated farms, thus defeating the New England neighborly contacts.

Puritan Families

A wife was under the husband, in a nuclear family. People were married by justices rather than ministers. Puritans permited divorce in spousal wrong-doing cases. The courts diciplined children, spouses, and servants. Wives had a lot of protection, but no rights to bear land. The Old English population fought poor nutrition, and high infant mortality. New England had adaquet diets due to the extensive land availiblity. People Lived longer and had more children. The balenced sexes permitted massive population growth. The children helped the parents with the farm. This system was ineffecient, but cheap. They diversified with lumber and fur.

The Demise of the Puritan Errand

In Old England, Oliver Cromwell took over. Purtans were hunted from England as the Stuarts were restored. The children of New England did not seek sainthood. The conversion relation must have scared them off. The second generation opposed the conversion relation. They modified the church so that sainthood can skip a generation. This ended the New England way.

The End of Indian Independence

The Indian population declined 10:1. Many Indians went into debt and over hunted. As people wanted consolidated land, they built outlying homes and got more Indian attacks. The new domestic animals and farming techniques changed the ecosystem completely. They could go the praying towns, another word for reservation. Tensions rose during the 1670s about land. They had minor skirmishes on farmhouses and a killing of a Christian Indian which sparked King Philip's War. Metacom, the leader of the Indians, had many guns and faired very well. The English burned the Indian's fields and sold the POWs to slavery. The praying towns and courts for Indians went away and most of the Indians were gone.

Economics, Salem, and Satan

The priests harped back at the plantation of religion. The dispersion among people made it harder. The traders and ports made wealth uneven. By 1681, the percentage of land owned by the wealthy grew from 21 to 62 percent. Merchants took over political power. There were the Putnams and the Porters who lived west and east respectively. As several girls asked about their past to an Indian, they were the witchcraft people. Witches were unfeminine, aggresive, and had devil's superpowers. The accusations went unchallenged by shear fear. The Putnams did a lot of the accusing, but no Porters were named. The accused was a widow or a young woman who had lost her parents due to the Indians. Some implicated others, families told on each other, and some people went to die to save the innocent. In 1693, the govener pardoned all the suspected or accused witches and ordered the trials to a halt as they convicted on spectral evidence. The population had to turn to trade, as the climate prevented farming. Now they were Yankees, basing life on religion and trade.

English Carribean

Sixty percent of people went to the Carribean between 1620 and 1642. The islands bought New England goods, and showed them techniques of mass slave control.

No Peace Beyond the Line

Below the tropic of cancer, all protections were gone and countries settled and killed as they pleased. The English took islands after the Spainish went to war with the Dutch (1624). Slave riots and invasions plagued to colonies from 1640 to 1713.

Sugar and Slaves

They cultivated tobacco like Virginia. The slaves grew and population was larger than the continent. The planters earned money and could improve themselves. They began to make sugar as a tobacco alternative appeared. By 1680, the large investors own a lot of land to operate the machinery and sugar plantations (1680 7% owned half land). They made it all sugar fields and depended on other places for food. They began shipping in more workers to tend the harder to grow crop (1640). They copied the Spanish idea of slave owning although England had gotten ride of it. They could work black slaves harder. By 1670, it was a slave society. Most whites who came to the West Indies left for Cheakespeake.

West Indian Society

By 1640, there were the two classes of whites. In 1661, a comprehensive slave code was developed which left no appeal and put much of the power in the hands of the owner. It legalized battery, assualt and murder of a slave. The slaves were defenseless against the whites. Even judges could hand down harsh dismembering punishments. The bubonic plague (1647), slaves, religion, and battles to defend and take islands took many lives. The average lifetime of a slave was thirty. Their family structure, religion, and music survived. The whites lived mostly as bachelors. There was no organized religion. Most of the owners stayed in England. They were the first plantation societies and Chesapeake followed (1700).

Chesapeake Society

James I took control in 1624 and gave it little money and allowed it to govern itself. The locals got the governers to listen and lived on tobacco.

State and Church

In 1619 they had a legislator and was later able to be whimed by the governor until 1628. They had bicameral legislators that passed the laws and taxes. The basic government of the English courts were used from 1634 to 1710 where appointments were usual for positions. In 1618 the clergy were tied to goevernment but became indepedent in 1662. They had very few clergymen.

First Families

The gentry that came to America soon returned and none were left by 1630. The incomming middle class worked their way up and dominated councils (1630-1660). The traders and merchants came in and again dominated the councils (1660-1675). These immigrants had families and passed down the wealth.

Maryland

The crown made presents of the former Virginia Company territory. In 1632 Maryland was given to Lord Balitmore (Cecilius Calvert) with only the war and trade restrictions. He tried to create a Catholic refuge. He made a manor to house a lord, priest, and hold Mass. He got people to come by offering the rich land for bringing people. In 1634 they landed and were well planned and spared starvation.

But due to low land prices, many became plantation farmers (1675). Protestants soon came to dominate the council and they had to pass the Act for Religious Toleration (1642, 1649). In 1654 the Protestants stripped Catholic votes and then the armies clashed killing three Catholics as a deterent. Lord Balitmore was ordered to take control in 1658 and had difficulty with it for four decades.

Life in the Chesapeake

The people lived far apart and had only six people per a square mile. Tobacco prices dropped in 1629 and stayed down. As long as it was near water and flat, tobacco remained a cash crop. They also had control over imports and stunted growth of towns (to 1678). They imported a lot of workers between 1630 and 1700 to man their farms.

Domestic Relations

Women were scarce (1650). Conaminated water and other diseases killed off people before 44 and servants within 6 years. Widows were often granted complete and never ending control of her husband's land. The death rate killed population growth. The native resistence increased and they lived 10 yrs longer and male female ratio was equal (1690).

Tobacco Troubles

The headright allowed people to build massive farms. The servants were given law mandated goods when their time was over. The servants could have become rich, but few did. The servants had no hope after 1660 when prices dropped. They had no luxuries and lived like camping with mush. The freed servants after 1660 formed a welfare people with no resources.

Bacon's Rebellion

In 1676 the tension exploded with Nathaniel Bacon, immigrated 1674, at the top. In 1644 there was an Indian skirmish in which the indians agreed in 1653 to live on a reservation. Settlers wanted lands and the militias killed the wrong Indians and war started. They couldn't build forts so they went out and killed friendly indians. Bacon's popularity made the government grant them great terms to keep pillage and slaugter. The governor stopped Bacon and Bacon burned Jamestown and plantations then died. This represented deep internal stress as they were starving because of tobacco.

Slavery

The plantation owners were substuting white servants for black slaves. From 1619-1640, blacks were separate but not slaves; in 1640-1660, blacks were treated more like slaves; after 1660, slavery was law. They could but never enslaved whites. In 1680, slaves comprised 22% of the population and later in 1700 half the slaves were servants. Indentured servants became harder to find and wages rose in America. The slave shipping companies didn't proiritize the Chesapeake, leaving the region white. White servants saw themselves as superior to blacks (!690).

Digression: Middlesex County, Virginia 1650-1700

During the 1640s families came and later 1668 it became a county. The 83 families made one half the population and the other half were indentured servants who had four to twelve years to work off, half of whom wouldn't make it. They had a high death rate due to malaria. Due to the high death rate, parents would drop like flies and children would grow up with step-step-step...parents. They had bi-weekly court meetings to share info. Property defined the people and slaves and their families became more common. Slave codes became common to control slaves and white freed men went inland. Betwwn 1668-1740 Middlsex county went from 93 % white to 54% black.

Conclusion

England had made three settlements by 1650, New England, Chesapeake, and West Indies. New England was the religious control freaks. The West Indies were the slave masters and tobacco farmers. The Chesapeake was the middle ground. The first families would dominate even through tough class warfare. New England lost its religion's strictness and became Yankees. The Chesapeake evolved to make slavery.

Document: A Model of Christian Charity - John Winthrop 1630

Published 1931 by the Massachusetts Historical Society.

The Calvinists came as Puritans to North America in 1630. Puritans were chased out of France and England. The Old World to them was doomed. The following is Winthrop's Sermon.

Some will be rich and some will be poor. These differences help the whole and to evangelize. No man is rich or poor out of his own work, but of God. The basis for us is that men want to help each other without seeking his own good. A difference must also thus be made. We are profesizeing. The government, people, and church must all be one. We all work for God. We must not change and stop loving. We have made a covenant with God. We must all be one, and we will become models of the world. We will be the city on a hill. We shall follow His commandments, and He is our life.

This crashed a burned in 1660. This is what they cherished and what was passed to America. They were the most stable group who settled the New World. The people also were strong enough to engage in rapid economic development. They also spawned the idea that the Old World had left them.

Documents 9-10-96

Most from document books published in 1970s regarding the witchhunts.

Christ Knows How Many Devils There Are (1692)

The recent witchcraft was punished. Established principles are that there are devils in this church and Christ can count and identify them. Below is the proof of the definition, existence, and not total existence of devils. Devil is a wicked angle or spirit. The hypocrite is the worst sinner and thus a devil. Christ knows that they are there because he found one in his twelve. They should not be allowed into church. They are not sincere. Let Christ find the hypocrites. Let's examine ourselves.

Martha Corey's Tesimony 1692

Why did you hurt the people? Let me pray. I am righteous, you will not pray. The Lord knows, and who hurt these children? A person whispers. Confess. You claim you are not a witch. I know nothing of a covenant. The bitting of the lip makes others bite. She answers as a holy perons, but they say she's a witch.

Ann Putnam's Deposition 1692

The minister tortured her to fear God and to sign in a book. He claimed the Goerge Burroughs had three wives and bewitched two of them. He claimed that he was a conjuror and a witch and witch maker.

Ann Putnam's Confession 1706

I accused several people of crimes. I believe they were innocent and that Satan deceived me. I was ignorant, and beg for forgiveness.

The Conclusions of the Massachusetts Bay Elders 1695

They met to discuss the unhappiness in the city. Mr. Samuel Parris has been changed by the heart of God. He shall be forgiven. Before accusing again, consider how we will devour one another. We will not hold harder standards against Mr. Parris.

Document: Black People in White People's Country

By Nash, Gary B. In Portrait of America Volume I

Intro: They landed as indentured servants, but later, they were slaves. They were enslaved for racial and labor needs. The slaves were used in the cultivation of crops, thus alliviating their need in the north. Every colony enacted slave laws to protect white society racially and serve them as labor. The crews of the slave ships had to be blind to these humans and had to seek wealth. Many died on these ships who didn't care about the loss because of insurance and high profits. They were humiliated, and treated like crap, the only thing they could hold onto was their heritage. These black backs built the so called utopia of the US, paradoxically.

The Atlantic Slave Trade

The slave trade was the largest forced migration which diversified the Americas. The English lagged behind in slave importation. The Africans at first were not as much viewed with backward cultures until the slave trade was well underway. They were coping with the same agricultural things as the Europeans. The culture gap was in fact nil, because the african cultures had trade, artisans, laws, and other "European" things. The distance and natural boundaries were inhibiting factors in the African culture.

The Europeans first traded stuff like any other normal person for slaves. Slavery was not new, but they were used as servants and had protection under law and their children were free. This was also done in ancient Rome and Greece but never by race. The slaves were shipped to Europe, but with growing populations, this wasn't necessary. The New World needed labor, but the indians died and knew the place too well, so slaves were brought in.

Ten to eleven million were shipped to the Americas and many more died. The slaves at first were only modest labor to the Europeans. Sugar transformed the labor to slavery as Europeans used this "drug food" en masse. As the demand for slaves increased, the african people hunted each other for slaves. Males were given because plantations prefered them and they did not carry inheritence in Africa. The Europeans fought for highly profitable slave trading West African coast. The Dutch were first, then the English Duke of York slave trading (1663) then open competition (1680s).

Capture and Transport

The cruel conditions and the vast depopulation of the West African interior resulted from the demand. They were captured and tied together, causing some to attempt suicide. Then they were stored in a coastal jail, and inspected by the surgeons. Then they were branded and jailed until all the cargo was assembled. They shipped the slaves in utter fear and killed many of them (10% mortality). The slaves would kill crews and destroy ships or starve, so the crew would use hot irons and coals. The one in two that lived the six months to cross lost a lot and had to be auctioned and learn new everything.

Development of Slavery in the English Colonies

They had no trouble enslaving the barbarians. They copied the West Indies and the other European powers. Slavery wasn't adopted as quickly in the mainland. Until the 1710s, slaves were less availible and white labor more availible. Culturally, the English didn't accept slavery that much, as in New York where there were Dutch who used more slaves. As slaves came, the slave codes which enslaved the whole race came.

At first they were servants who would be freed, then they could not marry whom they wished (no interracial marridges). They were stripped of marridge, right to testify in court, property, parenthood, and education. They lowered them to be subhuman and thought that they were dangerous and had to be locked up. The freedoms of America were being taken away. This complete degradation would lock the African Americans for centuries in prejudice.

Class 9-9-96

So far, the introductory material regarding Europe, Africa, and America in 1500s. This was part of a global expansion of empires and trade. And to that extent, the conquests in Spanish America, and ruled over America. The recent readings is the beginnings of settlement in the Americas.

Footholds in North America

Spain dominated in Middle, Southern and Carribean America. Portugal claims Brazil. The Netherlands claimed New York. English later in Virginia and Newfoundland. The French claimed in Quebec and the St. Lawrence River. Sweedish settled on the Delaware Valley.

The English had failed at Roanoke Island. They came to find gold, plunder resources like fur, and establish a utopia. Cheasapeake represented the colonists better than the Plymouth settlement.

Both Jamestown, Virginia Company of London, and Plymouth, Virginia Company of Plymouth, were funded by joint-stock companies, private investments.

Class 9-10-96

John Winthrop was the first govenor of Massachusetts Colony and lead the Puritan migration of 1630. This sermon is most known for the, "city upon a hill" which would shame the Church of England into reform and everyone would look at them. The social order demanded that they love and share with everyone, but it didn't happen.

A Saint was a church goer who also got grilled in public. They had to live up to the title after. There is a Puritan Paradox or dilemma which meant that nobody really knew if they were saints.

Class 9-11-96

Quiz: The Half Way Covenant of 1662 stated that the non-saint parents could carry the right of their children to be baptised. They had to lower standards for the preservation of the community.

Quiz: The witchcraft hunt in Salem were separated from the townspeople. Anyone with or about to gain power were witches. The Putnams filed a lot of the witchcraft indictments. The Putnams were poorer and accused the richer merchant Porters. The two halves become hostile toward each other. The increase of economic wealth trade is seen.

Class 9-12-96: New England

Distinctive Features       Town council - self-determination; male saints;       
                           significant population (50% male) was involved        
                           Family immigration                                    
                           High birthrate = population increase                  
                           Healthy climate = long life                           
                           Protestant religious                                  

Religious Dissent          Merchant challenge - 5% profit                        
                           Roger WilliamsRoger Williams - Separation between     
                           church and state; establishes Rhode Island which was  
                           religiously tolerant                                  
                           Anne HutchinsonAnne Hutchinson -                      
                           AntinomianAntinomian (those opposed to the rule of    
                           law) - Not preists are pious and thus you don't have  
                           to follow them; establish Connecticut; a strong       
                           woman                                                 

1640                       church lost power to trade                            
                           The intesity fizzles                                  
                           expansion of settlements - moved inland and had       
                           conflict with Indians; fur trade took more indian     
                           land; attempted to convert the indians (prayer        
                           townsprayer towns)                                    

Witchcraft Doc Pak         Samuel's sermon: proves the witches exist;            
                           demonstrates fear; Jeremiah sermonJeremiah sermon -   
                           admonishes parishoners                                
                           Martha Corey's testimony - The accusers were present  
                           and demonstrated the "witchcraft"; started            
                           innocently                                            


Table 2: Class 9-12-96 Heading Notes

Compare and contrast upper lower south, New England, Carribean, and Chesapeake.

Class 9-13-96: My Presentation - Chesapeake

Labor

This economy, based on tobacco required significant labor, brought by indentured servants. Later, slaves were imported, but white population remained high (1690). Up to the 1660s, the middle class immigrated then afterward, the traders came. The freed indentured servants had little opportunity for success and sank into debt and anger. This caused Bacon's Rebellion in 1676.

Bacon's Rebellion started off as a hunt all the indians down thing but changed into a burn Jamestown and chase the governor thing.

Politics

Lord Balitmore was given land in 1632. He created a haven for Catholics called Maryland. This place was based on the manor system where there were supposed to be tenants, but this never happened. With cheap land prices, everyone got their own plot. Later Protestants dominated the council thus requiring the Relgious Toleration Act of 1649. This failed, and people were killed.

The Chesapeake had a central governorship. This central power is more like the later US than the early US which is like the Massachusetts Bay colonies.

Economy

The tobacco prices remained good until 1629 when they dropped. The price and profit remained okay utnil 1660.

Culture

There were too many men until 1690. This made prostitution good. Slaves were not sanctioned by law until the 1660s. They were treated like slaved for 20 years before.

Class 9-16-96

Purpose of cruelty, Conditions & feeling, psychological

Conditions:

Purpose:

Felt as a slave:

Psychi:

How did conditions in the New World transform the traditional character of the slave trade? why? What crop ha a particular effect, and why did it become so important in intenational trade?

Slave were not big initially in European life. If there was not a New World, slaves would never have caught on. The tribes would go to war to capture people.

The key crops were tobacco and sugar. The similarity of climate between the African and American continent were benefitial. The Africans were considered less than human. This slavery became an inherited condition. Sugar consumption exploded creating more demand.

It started as the Pourtuguese and then the Dutch and later the English came. (1660s)

What effects did the sudden growth of the slave trade in the 17th century have on the conditions in Euro and Afr? What had Afr culture been like before the 17th century? How had it compared with European culture?

This created reciporacle trade between Europe America and Africa. This allowed labor and profits. Dutch West India company and the Royal African company had competition.

This caused warfare. Before they had agriculture and had extensive technology and culture and religion.

By what process did black slaver gradually become est in the British N Amer colonies? ho were the oclonies unusual in the s colonies? why was NY an exception?

The Duke of York took over the Dutch West India company slave trade. Slavery looks more profitable than indetured servants. They started later than other colonies in the Amer. The north had a different climate. The south had more farms and hotter climate. ?What about the religion differences?

New York was different because they were Dutch and had slaves before.

How does Gary Nash believe that slavery and racial prejudice influenced each other? What implications of his conclusions for the subsequent history of Amer up to the present day?

Nash supports that slavery came before racism. This is the justification of an existing condition. This spiraled and had no negative feedback. This has been passed down through the generations. This system kept the people in the bottom of the socioeconomic pyramid. Today, what do the Americans owe to the people of the past.

Colonial Society Comes of Age: 1660-1750

Alexander Garden, the bishop of the Anglican Church, was by an upstart, Whitefield, saying that his ministers sucked. He demanded an explanation and banished him from speaking the Protestant faith thingy. They fought over this in public. Whitefield was a good orator and spoke all over America. He went through the multinational America and found it was quicker to go over the Atlantic than the mainland. The French War kept the colonies with England, but afterward, people voiced their options and ideas and America joined in European arguments. This life was more secure in the 18th century.

The Restoration Colonies

With the Stuart Restoration (1660), the Anglican Church tried to clean up the Chesapeake. In the transportation acts of 1660, 1663, and 1672, the English made American sugar go through England. They built new colonies on the New World for the wave of immigrants from Europe and Africa. The businessmen saw profit and allowed the creation of land distribution which would make 'em rich.

Carolina

This was established in 1663 with limited initial growth. With headright in 1669, growth exploded. They promoted an economic and political elite. They initially raised livestock and tobacco and remained slave free (1680s). In the 1690s, they found rice which required heavy daming investment to grow, thus creating large profits for a few. The English servants couldn't keep up with the flooded rice plains so slaves were brought in (67% by 1720). The land was hot and malaria infested, so the families moved to Charles Town. The slave increase prompted restrictions and other punishements in 1696. They armed the local indians and told them to raid the Spanish people south, and sold all the POWs captured (1670). The Tuscarora Indians, threatened by white expansion had war (1711) and was crushed by 1713. The Yamasee were more successful in 1715 and the colonies had to get aid from the Cherokees. Since the people had been successful, the proprietors stopped aiding the, and they appealed to the king (1720). A slave uprising in 1739 toughened state slave policies. The colony had bee built on black backs.

New York and the Jerseys

They attempted the same thing like the Carolinas but failed. In 1664, the English took over New Netherlands in a war with The Dutch. The immigration came from England, Britain and France. The political leaders were paided in land and offered it to rent on good terms. New Jersey was awarded in 1664 then settled in 1672 and finally sold to the Quakers in 1676 and 1682. The religious groups in the area clashed and government collapsed in 1698 and was restored by the crown in 1702.

Quaker Pennsylvania

The king paid off a debt by giving land to Penn in 1681. He wished to form a religious experiment with the Quakers (1640-1650). They worked on consensus model to prevent false visions and Godly information. They had stressed equal rights and seemed to have contempt for the state and social nicities. They were spent on quiet mediation, but many joined rich and many also became rich. Between 1660 and 1685 they were persecuted in England. They carefully planed the settlement and many Quakers joined the new settlement. The planned the seven drafted constitution and the gridded orderly city. They had no starving time and no conflicts for 70 years as they bought land from the indians. By 1700, Pennsylvania prospered and became a port. With Penn gone to settle land matters with Maryland, the council was locked from 1684 to 1699 and Penn came back for only two years (1699). They were asked to make a creed and that idea was rejected (1692). The lower Delaward Dutch and Sweedes impeded Penn's perfect society. He died in debt because of his failure. Many of the Restoration colonies were carefully planed, but they never went as expected.

Rebellion and War

As the proprietors failed and the monarchy took over, the people were a little resistant to the direct rule. After royal power went down in 1689, North America had uprisings and returned to democratic rule.

Stuart Policies

The last two Stuarts wanted absolute monarchy like the French. The Duke of York rarely called legislators. The king appointed army men to colonial governors. In 1661, the Massachusetts assembly said to ignore all laws except declarations of war. In 1684, Charles II revoked the Massachusetts charter and the people retaliated with martyrdom. James II consolidated New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Plymouth, and later New Jersey and New York into the Dominion of New England (1686). The newly appointed governer strictly enforced everything and everyone hated him. New York thought there was a conspiracy to turn itself over to France.

The Glorious Revolution in England and America

The Stuart Catholicism scared the people (1680s). In 1688, the English sought help from the king's Anglican daughter, Mary who assumed the throne. The Bill of Rights (1689) limited the monarchy and the Americans also wanted to limit monarchial control. The king and queen allowed the dissolution of the Dominion with some provisions regarding Massachusetts. The colony had to tolerate Anglicans and also vote by property. New York people took control and got whooped (1689 Leisler's Rebellion). Because the leader of the rebellion had jailed the rich, the rich kissed up to the new governor and had the rebellion people killed. The Leisler supportors and opponents fought until 1695 when Parliament reversed the conviction. There was increasing mess ups as the Glorious Revolution and Maryland's status as there were feuding legislative houses. Coode took over in 1689 and the crown Anglicanized the place in 1692. In 1715, Lord Baltimore regained control until 1776, his death. The local rich and colonial people were allowed to retake control (1688-1689) and thus they voluntarily submitted to power.

A Generation of War

This started Anglo-French war. The French had sent soldiers to New France and made peace with the Iroquois. During the French war, there were little border skirmishs. The French targeted the Iroquois and killed off every nation leader. Over 20 % of the population was killed or gone (8600 - 7000). In 1701, they negotiated and agreed to stay neutral and sumitted to the power of the French Governor. Then in 1702, they were raided by the French and the Spanish and were messed up. England gained Newfoundland and Acadia (Nova Scotia), but failed to get inland. They realized that they needed protection from the navy.

Peace and Expansion

A Burgeoning, Diversifying Population

The population on the mainland tripled from 1713-1744. Franklin analysed the blooming New English population and said it would double every 25 years because of the small towns (1751). The health standards rose and women had many children and the population came closer to England's (1700s). The people had like 11 children per couple and so the population exploded (1733). The colonial population still had immigration but it paled to reproduction. The slave hated the voyage. The English stopped comming and the other countries started. The Scots-Irish came to escape rent fees. The Germans came to America to escape the war torn Rhine Valley. The indentured servants were creully treated, but once freed, they got some money. New England didn'y like spongers so most immigrants went to PA. Many moved in and started inland. The English did not like the immigrants. They also detested the sending of criminals to America. During the 1730s, the colonists got more and more land from the Indians. The Catawbas moved inland, but ran into other Indians and depended on the English for protection and weapons.

Georgia

In 1732, the Parliament allocated funds and sent debtors there. Oglethorpe founded Savannah with a international motley of immigrants and attacked Florida but lost (1740). He tried to ban slavery. Parliament banned slavery and said all land holders must be male and placed a land limit. The plan failed because not enough debtors were released and slavery was established (1750). The atlantic settlement was complete (1750) and would stay the same as population doubled every 26 years.

Rivals for North America

France Claims a Continent

Spain and France formed alliances and trading partners and were sucessful in coverting indians into Catholicism. They sent servants and settlers (600 / yr). They settled and farmed along the St. Lawrence River and only few daring souls went in and rode the Mississippi River down to the Gulf of Mexico. The French claimed the Mississippi River Basin and settled in Alabama. The colony was corrupt and could not support itself. The French were more successful with the Indians, but they were not completely good. They penetrated to North Dakota and Colorodi (1744).

Spain's Borderlands

Mexico claimed Texas. They were occupied with New Mexico and the Pueblo indians who took Santa Fe. The town settlements were fortified. The rancho livestock people lived here. By 1750, Spanish were only about 5 thousand while the Utes and Commanches raided. The Spanish sucked on Florida as they tried to enslave the indians. In 1737, they declared war on Georgia and they failed. The French and Spainish Empires were thinly spread while the English were dense.

A Maturing Colonial Economy and Society

The prosperity of America surprised the English (1756). Despite Parliament's tariffs, the growth gave the colonies prosperity.

British Economic Policy Toward America

Navigation system acts were passed (1651-1733). Until 1776's The Wealth of Nations, mercantilism was practiced to encourage vertical growth of nations. The first act wanted to squeeze out Dutch merchants (1651 reiterated 1660). The first effect on the colonies was that all colonists (even blacks) were british and that only british ships can be used. The colonists made ships like crazy and 1750 one-third of imperial vessels were American and in 1770 one-third of the "british" vessels were American. The second effect was that tobacco, rice, furs, indigo, hemp, masts, tar, and turpentine had to go through England, but England gave some of the tariffs back to the colonists. The third effect allowed the tariffs to fund American diversification. The fourth effect prevented American purchase of foreign iron and clothing. American economy wasn't hurt, it helped maybe, and it grew faster than the British economy.

Eighteenth-Century Living Standards

From 1713 to 1774, tobacco tripled in the Chesapeake and diversified into rice. A lot of small farmers owned slaves. They had good soil and a long growing season and income was 40% higher than per capita colonial. The towns were overpopulated and lumber prices dropped, hurting New England. They turned to the ocean where every fifth sailor was lost. The Americas churned out so much that they could get tons of English stuff.

Rural Family Life

Benjamin Franklin was well known for this. They got little inheritence because it was split seven ways and they had to work on rented land to save up for a home. They paid rent over many years with the 1/3 down, 1/3 inherited, 1/3 by themselves. The women produced the stuff that the farm would have to buy. Widows, single women had control over stuff, but once married, they lost it. The urbanites had to deal with narrowing economics.

The Urban Paradox

They were downward spiraling. The cities had immigrants and poverty with 4% of colonial population (1740). The bosses would hire and fire as the economy went (1750) and poverty went up. The second half of the eighteen hundreds, poverty was double digits. There were riots that were stopped by intimindation or property damage (1750). The immigrated poor in the south just sat around, unable to go to the frontier.

Slavery's Wages

Upto 1750 tons of slaves came in. The slave owners were unable to buy males and settled for females and raised health standards. They did not make it comfortable. They paied only 40% of the indentured servant upkeep. Slaves worked longer from childhood through adult, even when pregnant. They asked for Christmas presents and also sold stuff. In South Carolina, and Georgia, they only worked half the time they were up and could buy their freedom. In urban settings, there were slaves with more freedom, but they were also hunted in thefts, fires and micheif (1741, 1712).

The Rise of Colonial Elites

The wealthy were expected to act like English Gentlemen. Before 1700s, people were all the same. The wealthy and the moderately wealthy built large two story homes and stuff. They took European fashions and wagons, books, and furniture. The Chesapeake plantation people were at the mercy of the traders, so they diversified and became more vertical with their own glass and brick factories. The rich ten percent owned about 45 to 55% of the land, but this ecnomic gap wasn't as huge as Europe.

Elites and Colonial Politics

The governors got the wealthy to sit on courts and legislatures and the lower peopel to peace justices and county courts. The rich got it because of the legal requirements of running and also because they could afford to pay to travel and to live in the capital and leave their fields. John Adams got into it this way. A lot of white males 60% could vote as long as they ran a house with their own tools. The voters didn't turn out because the race was on reputation and the place was far away. They would pay off voters and some towns didn't have representatives because of the cost. The cities had good voting because there was communication and secret ballot. After 1689, the assemblies would become more of a legistlative body than an opinion polling follow the governor and council thing. They though that like the bill of rights, their assemblies should have more power like the house of commons. The assemblies kept salaries tight. The Parliament's Board of trade (!696) did little of its intended advisory role to the crown regarding the colonies. The classes grew and the colonies broke free from 1700-1750.

Enlightenment and Awakening

The Americans were oral, but 90% of the males knew enough to read and sign a contract. The rich invested in books and lived in them.

The Englightenment in America

They drew on Enlightenment ideals. The Benjamin Franklin's club called the Junto discussed questions and collected information (1727). He published the Poor Richard's Almanack (1732) and could retire early. He created scientific society and did kite electricity experiments. He made a school, library, and volenteer fire fighters in Philadelphia. The focused on reason and science more than people and Thomas Jeffereson joined the Royal Society. John Locke's Essay concerning human understanding said that things stemed from reflection and reason is paramount (Deists). They hated religious fanatics but promoted virtue and morality.

The Great Awakening

Although Franklin wrote about easiness (1750) the commoners faced diphtheria which killed every tenth kid (1737). During the 30s and 40s, the people longed for salvation. The ministers used this revival called the Great Awakening to stir up the crowds. The Anglican minister Whitefield brought more revivalist feelings (1739) and he converted 20% of the population. After Whitefield left (1740) divisions grew with Tennent at the wheel. Tennent undermined the people's Presbyterian ministers. The rationalists took revenge. The new and old presbyterians split from 1741 to 1758 and formed different parishes. New England blocked the New Presbyterians as much as possible. This revival had peaked in 1742. The Quakers lost power as Presbyterians, Baptists, and Methodists gained and created universities, and got Blacks. They promoted inner experience over doctrines and would aid in the religious diversity in the Revolution. Political effects are less apparent although they gave power to the people.

Conclusion

Whitefield's grave was descrated in 1775. The mainland provinces were more populous and matured by 1750. The Glorious Revolution and later stuff showed colonists dependence and wish to have equal rights. Although England tried to get more power over the colonies, they didn't know how much people would fight for their self-determination.

Digression: Mose, Florida (1740)

Black slaves sought refuge here. They raided Carolina and gave slaves wages. The blacks settled at Mose. They had a fort there which was a good buffer and sentry for St. Augustine. They established a community with the price of defense of Spain. They repulsed Oglethorpe and Mose was destroyed and not rebuilt until 12 years later when it seemed as though they were being kicked out of their new homes. When Florida became US, the slaves were taken to Cuba and when it was given back, the old policy held until the US fingered Spain (1763, 1783, 1790, 1819 annex, 1845 state).

Document: The Political development of the colonies after the Glorious Revolution

Alan Tully, eds: Greene & Pole American Revolution (1991).

The Glorious Revolution showed the differences and at the same time united the revolutionary colonies. The colonies had representative governments and reacted badly to the Catholic Stuarts (1660-1688). Most of the colonies were royal (1720) and had assemblies with little power and the governor and council with powers.

New York, Pennsylvania, and Carolina got more power and could go head to head with the governor. The assemblies got the money books, election books, and auditing and paychecks. The analogy to the House of Commons was used, but the assemblies were subordinate but often had more powers. They were well educated in their rights and sought a powerful representative body to defend them. The English mainland however held most of the powers to dissolve assemblies and veto laws, which was a threat to the colonists political liberties. The assemblies because strong enough to confront Parliament. The assemblies however were checked by the popularity of governors and their veto and dissolution powers which made political compromises.

The people turned to politics to entrench themselves. The active political people went to the assemblies because there wasn't room in the council. The assembly people adopted everything British and were pompously in the assembly. They felt that their position was loyal to the British. They had periodic disagreements within themselves. Each colony grew tons of politicians and awareness.

The broad electorate gave the representatives some power. The press appeared during the eighteenth century and gave more support for issues, but it did not always lead to more voter participation. The colonists actively mobed, making the representatives uneasy.

Eventually the politics equaled out in America with the formation of the gentry. The lower classes were not active so the upper class pursued its agenda.

The assemblies were part of the crown, but they had de facto legitimacy. The difference in radicality would divide the asseblies in revolution. The points of tension increased and voters gave mixed messages with low turnouts, apathy, approval, quiet disagreement, or partial endorsement. Politics became more profesional and grew and maybe lost touch with the people. The ideas of independence would remain, only with alterations.

Class 9-19-96: Restoration Colonies

The imperial connection to the crown becomes important. The term Restoration Colony is applied because of the Stuart Restoration under Charles II which caused a wave of new colonies (1660). He paid English supporters off with land. There was earlier Oliver Cromwell and a civil war. There were no new colonies founded during 1630-1660. These Restoration Colonies were New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Carolina, and New York (Georgia). Carolina was chartered to ? who enacted the headright thing in a few years. The propreitors in all the colonies used the manor system where they tried to bilk money from tenants. The proprietorships failed and applied for royal colonial status (1720-1740). The settlers were not willing to live under the system.

Carolina would be split only later. It differed because it started rice crop which required slaves. This created a black majority and thus similar to the West Indies. They needed to contain the slaves during the civil war. It had the Stono slave rebellion in 1739. This starts the upper and lower south distinction.

New York and New Jersey were taken from the Dutch in 1664. The Duke of York got this hunk of land and setup a manor system. He gives the land to five families, called the New York Patrons. There is massive immigration which messes up these plans. New Jersey was developed into a Quaker society after failing in manor system and becomes royal colony (1702).

Class 9-20-96: Pennsylvania

It was founded by a Quaker, William Penn whose father was the king's creditor. This was the last chunk of land near the Atlantic. They, the Society of Friends, were named the Quakers because they said the judge should tremble in the face of God. They didn't believe in religious or social order and promoted diligence but believed in "inner light." They didn't have ministers. They didn't respect the elite or the government. They were like the Puritans in that they were radical. They are persecuted and tended to be poorer.

The settlement is formed and they are joined by several thousand Quakers. Initially, they were successful because there was no starvation time and good relation with indians. They goverment froze when Penn left and society was divided. They were messed because of the Anglicans and the Quakers. It becomes the best poor man's land. It attracts a lot of people and becomes divided. They try to form a perfect society and the mess up.

Class 9-23-96

Quiz: Glorious Revolution: (1688) James was taken off the throne and William and Mary were put in. Bloodless revolution in England. The coloniest were more independent. This was to end the superiority of the king and Catholicism. Previously, James had established strict governorships. (Dominion of New England 1686) This had reduced their independence. The revolution allows the colonial assemblies. It drove the colonies closer to independence and gave English people rights. James had tried to establish a strong monarchy and now they had a limited monarchy (Bill of Rights 1689).

Quiz: Georgia: (1732) Oglethorpe's intention of being a buffer. This was a debtor's haven. He tried to ban slavery, liquor, and he failed. The immigration was non-English. The exotic crops failed and grew rice with slaves. They became like the Carolinas.

Class 9-24-96: Major Chapter Themes

Particularly, the exapansion of the British North American colonies and their mutual relationships are presented. The maturation of the colonies and the effects of Britain and competitors are discussed.

Competition and Rivalry

In more detail, the competition and rivalry within Europe was dominated by France and Dutch during the 17th century. Spain is influential, but they are declining. England rose and is dominant during the 18th and 19th centuries and plagued during the 17th century by civil strife.

Expansion

This rivalry for the Americas spured land claims. The French took the Mississippi Basin and call it Louisiana. They also took more of St. Lawrence, Mississippi delta, and Canada. They were more spread out compared to the English and dependent on the indians like trading posts and missions. Spain was in the southwest, New Mexico, Florida, and Texas which was raided by the French. They had established the California Missions. Georgia's foundation threatened the Spanish Florida. They accepted Georgia's slaves who intermarried and were free. These empires were different because they were spread out and needed indian aid. New England was dense but expansionistic.

European effects on America

European affects America in the Queen Anne's war (1702-1703) which was about the spanish succession and King William's war (1690). On the continent, this is about the indian and traders, so the Indian Iroquois lost. The boarder wars were small skirmishes. The English are screwed in Queen Anne's war. This emphasizes English protection.

Maturation

Maturing of the colonies occured by the growth rate and economic diversification. The population doubled every 25 years. This makes too rapid urbanizatoin with poor conditions. They had high birth rate and young marridges, and the land went westward. They had to buy land because there wasn't enough for inheritence. The Chesapeake was better life standard because people moved to the piedmont. Immigration from Europe also increased.

Particularly, political developments involved the governor, council, and assembly. The royal governor and council has the power and kept the direct control to the crown because they were crown appointed. These are the upper houses in the colonies. All the colonies had this type of structure. The assemblies are maturing. There is the imperial and colonial political gap. All colonies are really royal colonies. They gained power by controlling cash and argued on English laws, like "real" people. They used the example of the Glorious Revolution and the House of Commons. The press and citizens helped promote them. There were a lot of voters and the press was effective because of the literacy rate. There The upper classes thought it was a cool status & control thing. The colonists defered their rights to the politicians. The gentry flaunted their wealth, but there wasn't has high a class gap. Not all people were active. The local government with town and county meetings gave the colonial assembly stuff. They are more independent locally.

Class 9-25-96: Imperial Connection: Navigation Acts

The Navigation Act of the 1660s was to make England profit. They were required to trade only with England, excluding the Dutch. England wanted to become self-sufficient and mercantalistic. The enumerated goods had to pass through England, creating smuggling. England would profit and the other powers would be shut out. There were the enumerated goods, rice, furs, indigo, which had to go through England.

Resulting from these acts, the English merchant marine grew. There was smuggling. The economy was diversified and urbanized it. The market for American goods was protected with tariffs. They both benefited from the secure and free trade.

CORRECTION: Demographics: The population was 1 million by 1743 and tripled from 1713 to 1744. The Revolution time had 2.5 million people.

Class 9-27-96: Great Awakening

This is the first of two awakenings. This peaks in 1742 in Georgia with George Whitfield, a speaker, Jonathan Edwards, William Tennent, and Davenport. Tennant and Davenport take the awakening to the poor and encourage class warfare. There would be huge gatherings to hear the orators. This was to reconvert the people back. "New Lights" were different from "Old Lights" in that new lights were the revivalists and the old lights were the established congregationalists. There were conflicts as the new guys wished for inner light and the congregations splits. The Baptists, Methodists, and Presbyterians gain from this. They become the most powerful groups in the Americas. There were more colleges built. The black protestantism started. There is more religious tolerence.

The Road to Revolution 1744-1776

The antagonism grew as Britain tried to get more control over the colonies (1763). This was peaceful until 1776 while Americans pondered whether to break free from what they thought was "home."

Imperial Warfare

With wars, they were dependent on the British. The most important to the New World were the War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748, a.k.a. King George's War 1744-1748) and the Seven Years' War (1756-1763, a.k.a. French and Indian War).

King George's War, 1744-1748

These battles were skirmishes. The battle for Louisbourg saw the 400 New Englanders take the stone fortress of 1,500+ losing only 167 (1745). The treaty ending this war in 1748 gave Louisbourg back to the French for some captured outpost in India (1748).

A Fragile Peace

The French had tresspassing forts in New York and also had garrisons on Nova Scotia. Indians moved there and played off French English rivalry. The French built forts linking the Ohio River and Mississippi (1752). George Washington, a surveyor, was rejected and came with 400 volenteers and 100 regulars to take a foothold in the new territory. They found the French there (Fort Duguesne), built Fort Necessity, and lost it (1754). The went back and drafted the Albany Plan of Union which was rejected because of the centralized taxation control (1754).

The Seven Years' War in America

General Braddock tried again but lost due to arrogance (1755), and Americans only took two forts in Canada that year. During the years following, Canada roused up the Indians and took American forts. The Indians reversed in 1758 and Pitt took over military affairs and freed Americans from military costs, resulting in a large army. France surrendered in the Treaty of Paris, 1763 ceding land east of the Mississippi to England and west to Spain and the colonies got Florida.

Friction Between Allies

The English thought that their regulars did all the fighting rather than the colonists, and they were angry about the cost since they had tons of debt. The French absence messed up the indians who sacked forts (1763). They later distrubuted infected blankets to the indians who later agreed to a proclamation line which gave the indians land west of the colonies. The British people had to maintain troops on French Canada and governments in both Canada and Florida, and they did not like this and wanted the colonists to help out.

Imperial Reorganization

The colonies were soon afflicted by the Sugar and Stamp Acts (c1763). To stop smuggling in 1760, the English made a thing that allowed impromptu and unjustified searches of any ship or business of shipping, which was considered but not ruled unconstitutional.

The Sugar Act (1764) amended the protective mollasses act for revenue. It had too many regulations and strangled even colonial trade. It violated constitutional rights by searching and trial by judge.

The Stamp Act (1765) was an internal tax to make the American tax burden more comparable to the British. It taxed wills, newspapers, diplomas, and debt things, and was enforced with trial by judge. The opponents thought this was taxation without representation but the proponents said that the Americans were virtually represented in the Parliament, they just didn't have the property nor the population.

The colonists rebuted that the Parliament doesn't share interests with the Americans and thus does not represent them. They also state that they will follow Parliament in everything but internal taxation just as the Irish Parliament controls internal Irish taxes.

The Loyal Nine, a rebel group of colonists, shut down the Boston Stamp Collector and the Sons of liberty handled the rest (Aug - Sept 1765). This made the colonies messed up. They got around the stubborn officials who wanted stamped paper by threating their pay and lawsuits if they couldn't do stuff. This made the English companies worry about the colonist missing business and Parliament was forved it issue the Declaratory Act which reaffirmed Parliament's control but repealed the Stamp Act (1765).

The colonists read the Englightenment ideals of Locke's natural rights. They also read the newspapers which protrayed the English as encroching on their rights. They also saw classic works and history into the picture of natural rights. Finally, they had the religious denominations preach about natural rights. They had their new mind set complete.

Era of Anglo-American Crisis

After Pitt (1766), Townshend, a power money hungry treasurer, forced the American payment for soldiering supplies and allowed indirect taxation which was unpopular. He cracked down on smuggling and imposed gubernational internal tax (circumventing the assemblies), but it lost money. The colonists protested the internal and indirect taxation and not exteranl imports. They thought that external taxation was to protect internal interests, but now it was used for revenue.

John Dickensons (1767) protested the non-representative revenue tax, Revenue Act. John Adams in the Massachusetts Assembly wrote a circular letter regarding it. Virginia responded even more radically even though the Privy Council said to dissolve any legislature that adopted or failed to repeal the letter. The Sons of Liberty slowly started a boycott of British goods which took cut imports by 40% which crippled the British (1768). The Daughters of Liberty helped the boycott by spinning cloth and agreeing to non-consumption of tea.

They formed the American Board of Customs Commisioners which spied and seized cargo and sailor's personal belongings for gain (1/3 commission, 1767). The sailors rioted and killed inspectors which made the British peeved. A wealthy trader, Hancock, was unjustly tried in 1768 for smuggling after a riot in Boston. The colonists said that Parliament had no authority other than trade regulations for the Americas. The customs were reformed in 1770 but the damage was done.

The defiance brought soldiers to Boston. At first a kid was killed because he and his friends threw rocks at a customs offical and later there was a skirmish at a guard post. All those who died were given a martyr funeral. John Adams played each death up to rile the people. They then moved the soldiers off to an island and the governor promised to bring the gun bearers to trial (Boston Massacre, 1770).

The Townshend Acts were repealed in 1770 by Lord North, the new primister, except for the tax on tea. The colonists stopped most of the stuff, and limited themselves to the non-consumption of tea.

The colonists spilled over the Proclamation of 1763 and the British didn't have the finances to maintain the indian relations. The indians felt that white migration could not be stopped. The expanding settlers had conflicts and made war to get colonial law and support. They eventually formed their own colonies or in South Carolina's case, got what they wanted.

After seeing the Gaspee raids governed by the Sugar Act, John Adams established a chain of town leaders which would get information, debate, and vote on an issue called the committess of correspondence (1772). This was copied in 1773 by the colonies. This firmed the division between Americans and the English.

Toward Independence

The British government repealed the duties and also allowed direct sale of tea to save the East India Company in the Tea Act (1773). This insulted the colonists with cheap revenue generating tea and caused resistence and refusal to port tea ships. One came through in Boston and the governor refused to let it go. Samuel Adams made the very disciplined and calm tea party.

The Coercive Acts of 1774 did four things along with the Quebec Act:

  1. Closed Boston Harbor until the town paid up (British companies who would be hurt by this offered to give a bond for Boston but it was refused)
  2. It restructured Massachusetts government to be completely appointed.
  3. Any murderer enforcing English policy could be tried in England
  4. Troops may be stationed in any private empty building
  5. The Quebec Act kept Canada under direct crown control with the addition of the Mississippi valley

This presented a threat to all the colonies not only Massachusetts and Virginia and all colonies mobilized for revolution. The First Continental Congress in September 5, 1774 resolved the following and sent it to the king:

  1. The colonies are now under Suffolk Resolves, a passive rebellion and under a provisional government
  2. All British goods are boycotted (Dec. 1774)
  3. No exports to British territories (Sept 1775)
  4. No colony is subject to the Coercive Acts

The colonists harassed British sympathizers. They setup extralegal governments and military. The governor of Boston sent his men to Lexington and Concord who were thrased. The Second Continental Congress sent the Olive Branch Petition loyally asking for repeal of the Coercive Acts, cease fire at Boston, and negotiation over rights. However, it came with the news of the English defeat at Bunker Hill which made the English want revenge. They also drafted an American continental army.

The Americans had resisted independence because they thought the king and several leaders were on their side. Thomas Paine helped break that image with Common Sense which likened Britain to a tyrrant and that they could be successful (1776).

Massachusettsm Rhode Island, North Carolina, and finally the congress voted for independence. Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence which left out Parliament and said that England, the king, had violated natural rights and thus America could create its own government (July 4, 1776).

Digression: Concord Massachusetts 1775

The people were called to arms but retreated awaiting reenforcements. The women tricked the redcoats. The soldeirs burned stuff. The men attacked and broke ranks, killing several redcoats. Reinforcements arrived as the British were leaving and gave them a chase.

Presentation 10-1-96

ID                          Information                                          

King George's War           France & England                                     
                            1743                                                 
                            Consisted of raids                                   
                            Lead by Peperral                                     
                            At Louisbourg by outer French guns controlled by     
                            English                                              
                            End 1748                                             

Interwar                    Ohio Valley in dispute, claimed by Virginia (George  
                            Washington), Indians, and French                     
                            Fort Necessity (surrendered 7-4-1754)                

Albany Plan for Union       1754, called for a grand council and a president,    
                            thus centralizing defense                            

Seven Year's War            1756-1763; General Braddock came back to take Fort   
                            Duquesne; he died while fighting the French and      
                            Iroquois; succeeded in Nova Scotia; French were      
                            stronger upto 1758 because of Indians; Pitt          
                            developed the colonial armies (no financial cost     
                            and less soldiers); The treaty made France give all  
                            the land to Spain and England                        

French Cannadians           Arcadians                                            

Friction Between Allies     The English got pissed because the colonists "did    
                            and paid nothing."                                   

Indian Conflicts            The Indians weren't able to play off English and     
                            French. Indian were screwed.                         

Proclaimation of 1763       This made all the land west of the appalachans       
                            royal lands instead of colonial.                     


Table 3

Class 10-2-96: Imperial Crisis

The Seven Year's War (French & Indian War) resulted in the loss of French America to England, British military build up (debt and taxation), and the indians lost the European Rivalry which was the basis of their existence. The taxation was only 5% of the English taxation. After gaining the land from the Treaty of Paris 1763, the English proclaimation of 1763 restricted the colonies to the east of the appalachians and claimed that land. This conflict also results in the failed Albany Plan.

Comming from the Seven Year's War, the English got into debt and taxed the colonies. They needed British army, but they also had misunderstanding (the appearence that the militias did nothing) and a self-confident militia. They now wanted wealth from the colonies, and thus control ending salutory / benevolent neglect. There was less of a need for English defense (more in the frontier; but there were still soldiers so that they could setup in the Mississippi). The colonies are maturing. The English are dependent on the Americans. This is the new imperialism.

The Sugar Act just extends the enumerated goods. It made more stuff go through England. The Stamp Act was meant for England to profit. This affected everyone internally in the colonies. Most written transactions were taxed. The supervision and enforcement is done in the colonies by royal appointees and English judges. This dampened the educated and wealthy colonists like lawyers, merchants, politicians, etc. These were the people who knew their rights and had powers.

Class 10-3-96: Opposition to the Stamp Act

The Sons of Liberty sought to frighten the stamp people and burned the stamped paper. They were an unorganized vigilante groups and the elite got more control over this "weapon." The prohibited the carrying of arms in the protests. They tried to channel the violence. The Loyal Nine were Boston Shopkeepers and Businessmen who were early Sons of Liberty. After the disbandment of the Sons of Liberty (1766), they start the Committees of Correspondence which creates a political network across colonies. In 1765, at the Stamp Act Congress, they condemned the revenue act which was enacted without representation. They began to boycott english goods. They appeal to the king.

The Parliament gave the Declaratory Act repealed the Stamp Act and state that they have full authority over the colonies (1766). They started the Townshend Acts which were external to generated revenue to fund the govenors. They created the American Board of Customs Commisioners (1767). They could search without reason and would be real sticklers so that they could gain money and had no fair trials. They also had spies and interferred with the operations. The Townshend Acts were to pay the governor's salaries so that the assemblies would lose control. It taxed glass, paper, tea, paint, and lead. The assemblies thought that this act was now revenue generating and thus needed representation.

Class 10-4-96: Philosophy of Revolt

They and their self government were getting screwed by Parliament which was writing unconstitutional laws. They believed in Locke's social contract between the government and the people. They don't feel that the colonists have representation (virtual representation due to population). Virtual representation is where each delagate was supposed to represent everyone in the kingdom versus an actual native from the place. The colonists wanted a federation of commonwealth (John Dickenson "Letter of a farmer from Pennsylvania") where they would be under a king but two assemblies and autonomous because they didn't like the Parliament. This was popular until Common Sense. The resistence started the revolution slowly.

Response to Townshend Acts

Samuel Adams wrote Journal of the Times which sensationalized the British occupation which was effective propaganda. He organizes funerals for people who were killed by the British and he also did the tea party. He got the circular letter with James Otis. This organizes the people for the committes of correspondence. There was also the customs racketeering and corruption and resulted in the Boston Massacre (1770). The repeal of Townshend Acts except for tea were lifted and peace came again (1770).

The tea party was really controlled and calm. They stopped as much tea as party. The Tea Act (1773) was established to keep the East India Company afloat and slashed East India tea taxes since there was non consumption and non importation. This would pay the governor's salaries and would hurt the colonies. The colonial merchants would get hurt. It revived the issue of no taxation without representation. This created large scale protests which sent back tea ships. The tea party was emulated in other towns. This drives the committees of correspondence which is extralegal.

The Forge of Nationhood 1776-1788

The colonists thought the north and south were different. The long war for independence would unify the people but still leave the questions of how to form a central government that won't infringe on rights went unanswered until 1789.

America's war for independence fought the English and the Loyalists. The loyalists hated british taxes but saw that indepedence was not the way. The new immigrants, British or otherwise, as well as the Canadians supported them because the British would protect their rights to religion. The British also took the slaves to aid in fighting the Rebellious Americans.

The Americans enlisted 220 thousand troops. The English made it easier to enlist, but only got 162 thousand with the addition of mercenaries. Most British superior navy would sit in repairs or be captured by the US privateers on the US merchant marine. The navy could barely supply the army and didn't blockade the US ports. The Americans had to do European warfare to keep the population centers. They only had to wait until the mainland Britons were sick of war. They had little battle experience.

George Washington had defended the boarders of Virginia and sat at the House of Burgesses and also opposed taxation thus was selected to run the continental army.

The British tried to take New York. The American's had to retreat. George Washington attacked at Trenton and Princeton and messed up the British Armies. They boasted moral in general and prevented the use of loyalist New Jersey as a base (1777 British pull out). It also helped the Americas that the British soldiers looted loyalists and rebels alike, causing animosity from the British sympathizers.

The French wanted a decisive victory before recognizing rebel America and aiding. The British planned a two prong attack on New York. Then General Howe made it a three prong with a thrust for Pennsylvania which stretched resources. The North prong was repulsed by overstreatched logistics and trouble with an American encampment. This allowed the Americans to mass 17,000 troops and force the defeat at the Battle of Saratoga (Oct. 7, 1777). This was played up by the American Ambassador to France, Benjamin Franklin who was already loved and got French recognition and support which made the British panic and send troops to its other colonies to defend from the French. Then the Dutch and the Spainish joined against the British which messed up the naval blockade and neutralized the British Navy.

Washington had an equal match at Philidelphia with 16,00 troops. He lost twice losing 20%+. They slowly settled into Valley Forge and recovered and trained under Friedrich von Steuben. That spring, the British would have a hard time with the continentals.

There was frotier fighting which were skirmishes and were fiereces as they determined the future of indians, americans, and british. The British faced with international pressure went for the south in 1778. The militias were defeated easily, but made enough damage to make the british go for yorktown. The french landed near there with troops and blockaded it and washington in new york prevented reinforcements thus Cornwallis had to surrender (1781). This made the British seek peace.

Peace was made in Paris in 1783 (Treaty of Paris). The US got western lands and fishing rights. This was good, but florida's boarder was unclear. States would prevent promised English debt collecting so England kept US slaves. This was a bloody war as 5% of the males died.

Revolutionary Society

The society sought equality as the rich in protest wore homespun clothes and thus the local farmer felt in touch. Even the officers and soldiers in war helped each other and told themselves why they should do stuff. The politicians were rich but did not flaunt it and people rose up from the poor to do good stuff.

The war made states enlist blacks under the table. Slavery was opposed by the Quakers and the Declaration of Independence. They had gradual emancipation laws. The south said it couldn't free slaves because it would ruin the economy. The black churches were made at this time and some slaves were freed.

Women had little additional rights as a result of the Revolution. However, orators mentioned that they sacrificed for the war. They Massachusettes had made equal education in 1779 and the women's issues became more prominent. Women wondered what they would do with their education.

The indians fought assimilation and also wanted cultural independence. They wanted to stall take over by trading and stuff. But settlers would eventually come with farming and alcohol. The Revolution had not changed the social make up of America, but it had set social change in motion.

Forging New Governments

They never thought of governments seriously, but now they knew it was necessary to keep the United States indepedent. They assumed bicameral legislatures and vote by property, but there were no issue or political parties. Political paries were thought as special interest groups who were selfish. Representatives ran on their reputations and should think of the state and not pleasing the people. They liked state assemblies and thought of themselves as republicans not democrats (mob rule).

Each state made modests reforms and had a bill of rights. They had weakened executive. They revised the constitutions in 1780 and 90 to balence powers and bicameralize the legislatures. The upper houses were sometimes formed from the assemblies votes, an electoral college, or higher property requirements. This never created an elite, but it provided a check against either house. These documents limited the government and leaders and had to be voted on by the people. They appointed a lot of people to prevent the foolish yeoman from messing up the country. The sense of equality was necessary to keep the republic going. They took out primogeniture, inheritience by the eldest male, and the tithes to the Anglican church.

John Dickenson wrote the Articles of Confederation despite not signing the Declaration of Independence (1776). It lacked judical and executive and bicamerality, but gave essential soveriegnty to the states. Committees did the gruncge work. This was an important step despite its downfalls of inability to enforce taxes and trade.

There was massive debt and inflation as a result of borrowing and printing paper money. They threatened a mutiny to get the states to pay, but it was foiled. There was an economic depression as a result of British trade limits. The states started to give less and less money to the government.

They sent out surveying in the Ordinence of 1785 and forbade slavery in a later ordinence of 1787 which also made statehood possible. They needed this to allow for the expanding population to be comfortable. They said the indian's were conquered. The British held 7 forts to try to retake the NorthWest Territory. The indians didn't like the peace of paris. The indians massed in Florida and attacked. Georgia, unwilling to finance a war, gave up the land. The Jay-Gardoqui Treaty (1784) allowed American goods in Spainish markets while closing New Orleans which was not ratified by congress.

After 1784, Massachusetts sank deep into debt and had to hike taxes so no one could pay. Daniel Shay led a rebellion and got control of the assembly and a pardon (Shay's Rebellion, 1786). People thought it might lead to more rebellion and also it spurned the idea of a strong national government. They worried about paying debt. Politicians had met slightly before to discuss interstate commerce but resolved to propose amendments to the Articles.

The Pennsylvania convention in 1787 drafted the constitution in secret to prevent influences from home. They decided to scrap the articles of confederation after they had seen how it worked. They hasseled over the question of represetntation. They debated the New jersey Plan with a single state representation congress where laws would be supreme or a virgnia plan with population representation where the lower house would appoint the upper house, judges and president. They settled with the Connecticut Compromise where one would be states and the other would be population. It gave key powers to tax, court, make treaties, veto laws, use military force, and other stuff including the supremacy in the land. It was split into three branches with checks and balences to prevent corruption. The states were cut out of the major powers of the new federal government, but it had local control over other matters like slavery. It was ratified in conventions because the legislator would oppose it and it started we the people.

The push for ratification was done by the people in the convention who called themselves the federalists. They easitly one eight states despite the anti-federalists who argued there was no bill of rights and the powers were not balenced. They had to get New York and Virginia. New Hampshire, then Virginia's ratification scared New York and Manhattan Island threatened to seceed from New York which made it ratify. North Carolina and Rhode Island rejected the constitution. The Federalist papers published during this time give good insights into the framers minds which placed the constitution as the device by which the minority would not be crushed by the majority and the majority would not be stalled by the minority and thus no interest could dominate, especially inside a large country like the US.

Conclusion

North Carolina and Rhode Island eventually joined. Many had died during the revolution and made the states unify as "American."

Digression: Jenuchshadago, Pennsylvania (1780)

These were part of the Iroquois. They were messed by the revolution and dropped in populatio from 4 thou to 18 hundred. They were polutted with small pox and liquor. Their culture remained. But their life had changed.

Document: American Political Tradition Chapter 1: The Founding Fathers -- An Age of Realism

They distrusted men and their ability to rule, fearing mobs. They wanted to be able to pay debts and enforce laws, but they saw the past British monarchy doing the same thing. They wanted the government to be accepted.

They used flawed vices against vices so no class could take control. They used the government to check and balence itself. The representation could prevent the people from getting out of hand. The representatives were checked by each other, executives, and judicial people. They did not broadly define liberty, but they sought to find the balence between the individual and the society. Thus they wanted security and stability. There needed to be a democratic side to the government but without mobs. There are various views of the Founding Fathers. They never anticipated the modern middle propertyless class of urbanites. They thought of greedy humans.

Class 10-10-96

There was still a feeling of loyal resistence. The leaders had to change this feeling and get internation support. The last task was how to effectively fight the British by not losing battles. The First Continental Congress met (Sept 1774), defying the English. The sent the greivances to the king and develop a plan for resistence in the anticipated conflict. They also had to develop theory of their relationship with England. The implemented:

  1. Non-importation and non-exportation
  2. Encouraged committees of correspondence to establish militias
  3. Established the committees of observation which were to police the institution of non-importation and non-exportation and became the de facto government in the colonies and filter out Tories with spies

This establishes the machinery of revolt. The governors have less and less power and the grass roots government organization take over. The committees give rise to the provincial conventions which further spread the network and go to the second continental congress. Soon after the clashes happen in Concord and Lexinton.

The loyalists are the recent immigrants, tenants who disliked their patriot landlords, Anglicans, maybe Catholics, and the rich especially merchants who depended on English trade. Native Americans and slaves didn't like the thought of Anglo-Americans ruling the land. They got freedom, land, and prevent expansion.

Class 10-17-96

Dickenson supports Hoffstader for the balence and pragmatism. He wants to confine these people and feared democracy. Political status was made by property.

Class 10-21-96: Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation made a strong emphasis on states' rights. Using a one chamber one vote per state, the articles left all affairs to that legislator which could have committees. All laws and taxes require unanimous approval. There is no executive. They are able to mediate interstate trade, conduct foreign relations, regulate indian trade, and control over maritime affairs. This was not thought through because the emphasis was on state constitution.

The problems seen in the 1780s included the national debt and how finance the war. The states' interests blocked the national interests. This caused excessive money printing and confidence in the colonial bills was lost and inflation increased. They lacked military to squish uprisings and outside invasion. The foreign relations sucked because they weren't repected and didn't have the leverage to counter it. The states blocked treaties.

One of the accomplishments of the Articles of Confederation are the Northwest Ordinances. This surveyed land and made the procedure for the creation of states. It supplied for educational districts. Slavery was banned in the territories.

Slavery in Constitution

The slave codes were changed and owners could free the slaves (manumission). During the 1780s, slavery was abolished in the northern states. African americans were free and churches were formed.

Class 10-22-96: Constitution


Virginia PlanVirginia Plan    Two houses, proportional to the population, lower  
                              elects the upper;                                  
                              Executives are elected by Congress;                
                              National judiciary                                 

New Jersey PlanNew Jersey     Unicameral system;                                 
Plan                          Extension of Congressional powers                  

The Great CompromiseThe       Upper house is by states;                          
Great Compromise              Lower house proportional;                          
                              Three-fifths compromisedThree-fifths compromised   
                              on slave counting                                  



Table 4: Various Plans for the Constitution

There are the basic checks and balences in the government. The constitution was upto debate and structures weren't defined. The first congress had to complete the structure.

Launching the New Republic

The Fragile New Nation

Andrew Jackson was allowed to talk secession in 1789 with a Spainish operative. The Union was weak, unable to keep itself even with its own people which would change as harsher things came in to the picture with Washington and parties. They needed a new government as pressures from expansion and debtors mounted.

Roger Clark in 1786 made a stab at the indians with militias and others did likewise forcing them to travel to Ohio only to see the New Englanders settle there. The English had kept a buffer indian state there to keep American expansion and allow fur trade. The colonists would arraign with the Spainish for money and indian protection / alliances. They had given western property already.

The south lost its export market. The mid atlantic prospered because of a famine in Europe and New England sucked because of taxes and messed up climate and fishing. These New Englanders turned from merchanting to banking and formed the first banks which financed the first sparkles of industry which failed because of a lack of demand. They had artisans which hired apprentices and traveling journeymen who switched jobs every 6 months. Mechanics were almost inherited and most were in shop, non mass producing jobs. Women stayed at home.

Constitutional Government Take Shape

They faced the further defining of the president whose cabinet was uncertain and whose powers to set congressional agendas was enourmous especially with the looming Bill of Rights and the delay in starting the new New York based government.

Washington balenced his government with northerners and southerners and his cabinet had that even though he supported federalists like Hamilton, he wanted Jefferson's opinion. He didn't want to do a second term cause he didn't want to set a precedent for a lifelong presidency.

The courts were aslo undefined tand they thought it would have too much meddling in the states. They made each state a federal court distrinct run under local traditions. Some had wanted states rights to balence the government while others were happy with individual rights. The Bill of Rights did little to severely modify the constitution and its organization. The courts established a nonresident's right to sue a state and the power to determine constitutionality and the power to overturn state laws. The ruling on the nonresiden'ts right to sue a state was overturned by a constitutional amendment. This had signaled Madison's change to restricting the federal government.

National Economic Policy and Its Consequences

They had lost credit in the war debt and they couldn't fight a second war with England. The French were weak and they needed to become self-sufficient. Hamilton wanted fame and power and he also thought he could make the influencial people support the government.

He made them pay off the 79 million in debt with securities. The absorbtion of state debts would make the assemblies more grateful. He urged that the debt to Americans not be paid off and rather interest be paid. Madison opposed it and absorbing the states debts was messy because some states have paid off most of theirs. The trade was that the capital be moved to Virginia and Hamilton's plan passes.

He wanted to form a Bank from a 10 million public stock which would dispense the money to diversify the economy at no cost to the government. He also wanted to raise protective tariffs.

His opponents thought the bank was corrupt and the permanent debt was wrong. They thought it wasn't constitutional. Jefferson said anything that isn't in the constitution doesn't go, Hamilton said anything that isn't prohibited can go. Washington sided with Hamilton. The tarrifs were knocked down because they would allow the American industries to hike prices, so they raised taxes only a little.

His commericial activites were well recied in New England and the rich were more loyal to the government. The West and the South didn't like his policies.

Hamilton wanted an internal liquor tax to fund the state debts. The Western farmers, unable to use New Orleans had used distilled liquor to earn money on the other side of the Appelacians. It also was only enforced in Western Pennsylvania. In July 1794 the Whiskey Rebellion occured where 100 men socked US marshals. They marched militias over West and arrested the rebels. They had used the same reasoning as the Tea and Stamp Acts, but how far could this go.

The United States in a Hostile World

Foreign Powers and Nation Americans in the West

The foreign policy was crucial to keep the exports comming while attempting to secure the frontier and western lands.

The British and Spanish attempted to prevent further expansion of the US with the Indians. Washington had to group support with Vermont, Kentucky, and Tennessee. He needed ton control foreign policy. He negotiated with Spain's puppet, Creeks (treaty 1786), but failed with a diplomatic and two military attemps at the Miamis (1791). They took a policy where they recognized Indian lands, prohibited tresspassing, general crimes, and alcohol and encouraged Indian assmilation into western society. Indians accepted, but resisted assimilation and the Creeks renounced the treaty 1792.

France and Factional Politics

France established a republic (1793) and went to war against all kings. The US thought this would kill Britain and Spain, meddlers in the Americas. However, British incited a rebellion in French slave colony, Saint Domingue, in the Carribean (1793). This scared the south. Despite being bound by a mutual defense agreement (1778), the United States remained neutral for if it opposed Britain with even a selective tariff, war would follow in six months (1793). Citizen Genet, a frenchman, attempted to start an army to go south, however, he ran out of money, but he was able to start pirateering which would profit from the goods taken.

The British Crisis

The Britons drafted a secret document which seized ships sailing to the French Carribean. They also impressed, forcably enlisted, "former" deserters who had fleed to American ships, but this practice was overdone (1793). The British were building an eighth fort on US soil and the Spanish were building another one.

The US sent John Jay to Britain, Thomas Pinckney to Spain, and General Wayne to Ohio (1794). Wayne razed Indian villages and build Fort Defiance so challenge the British and got a treaty. Jay got removal of British troops and small access to the Carribbean. They lost the right to carry sugar, molasses, and coffee from the region, so the Americans were mad because they lost honor and French business. This was one of the best treaties that they could have hoped for. The Pickney treaty got the duty free Mississippi and more southern land. Exports to Britain shot up. Washington had been sucessful in foreign relations, but the Americans were divided.

Battling for the Nation's Soul

There were no visions of parties in the Constitution or the Federalist Papers. Hamilton's plans and potential war with England brought more political conflict.

Ideological Confrontation

The French Revolution was to Northerners a mob. They did not like people to deal with policies. They made the ruling class seem more higher with noble titles. The south did not like this. They wanted people to participate in civic affairs. They made an opposition newspaper, National Gazette. They formed clubs and Washington, opposing them, was now a Federalist.

The Republican Party

Even though the cabinet wasn't tied to the clubs, it still was mounting factioalism. Jefferson left leaving Washington less opinions. The newspapers increased 150% and they made poor news with libel and personal attacks. Republicans charged Washington of forming a monarchy and an elite with European courts. Washington's farewell address had been twisted to condemn political parties and he left with tons of criticism.

Election of 1796

The Republicans got a lot of the South and new immigrants. Jefferson got second place because Republicans took Pennsylvania and failed to get New York. He became vice president. Adams was president who worked better with ideas than people.

The French Crisis

The French didn't like Jay's Treaty and started capturing American ships. Adams sent a delagation to France, only to be rejected by anonymous agents named XYZ thus the XYZ Affair which discredited Republicans (1798). They armed ships to escort convoys and British extended protection to American ships. The French sucked. Armies were increased to prevent rebellion as French sympathizers were stirring.

The Alien and Sedition Acts

The Alien Enemies Act were not supported, just signed, by Adams and set procedures against espionage in war only. The Alien Friends Act was a peacetime measure which expelled without proof, foreign residents. The Naturalization Act increased the requirements for US citizenship. The Sedition Act distinguished free speech and rebellion but left it broadly worded so any speech against the government could be found messy. It expired exactly on 1801 so that it couldn't be used against the Federalists. The Republicans denounced the last three laws. The Sedition acts targeted opposition newspapers. Militias denounced the acts by signing petitions in the midst of guns and drums. The system of checks and balences had failed because the Federalists controlled it all. The states stated interposition and nullification which said that they had to protect their citizens. There was Fries Rebellion in 1799 which expressed discontent.

Election of 1800

The candidates tried to stay moderate. The Federalists had lost support as French war threats declined and taxes and army spending had soared. The Republicans tied Jefferson and Burr who had won only by eight electoral votes. This deadlocked the election in the house until a Federalists switched to Jefferson.

Deferring Equality

Indians in the New Republic

Jefferson made it more equal but left out women, blacks, and indians. Indians started killing each other, unable to stop the whites invading their land. The Senecas welcomed Quakers but their women didn't like the power they were losing.

Redefining the Color Line

The early years had little restrictions on free Black movement, voting, citizenship, and militia. In 1792 the federal militia law enabled racial discrimination. Runaway slave laws allowed owners to reclaim their previously freed slave. Seeing the French mess up at Saint Domingue and the build up in Gabriel's Attempted Rebellion in Virginia (1800), America supported anti-Black laws. The development of cotton and Eli Whitney's Cotton 'Gin spurred on slavery. Martha Washington had freed slaves, but due to restrictive laws, they remained dependent on the estate.

Conclusion

Strife still plagued America even though it has overcome a lot of problems.

Digression: Philadephia in the 1790s

The town was exploding despite disease which forced the government to move away every summer. Merchants were in a volatile economy. Stephen Girard took risks and prospered. There was the 10% who owned 50% and the artisans and the other people. There were freed blacks with seven schools. Only the professional people dealt in politics.

Document: Report on Manufacturers

Hamilton, Alexander. "Manufactures: Communicated to the Hous of Representatives, December 5,1791." American State Papers. Washington D.C.: Gaales and Seaton, 1832. V 123-27. Part of Colin & Peterson eds. An American Harves: Readings in American History. Vol. 1.

Alexander Hamilton had risen from poverty as Washington's aides. He wrote four reports as Secretary of Treasury. He recommended protective tariffs to encourage industry. He refuted that agriculture, because of division of labor, was more effective by saying industry has more possibilities of division of labor.

We should have a rounded economy and reward manufacturers. Agriculture provides for basic subsistence of man, however, manufacturing has more value. This is because we can make greater value goods. This is productive because of division of labor. We can use machines and produce what foreign market's produce with out materials. The factories can employ people who cannot work otherwise. By diversifying, we can get more stuff. Also the inventors can help.

This was adopted with revenue tariffs. The states enacted the rest of the stuff. Hamilton got rejected by congress and formed his own organization, Society for Establishing Useful Manufactures, which spured industrial growth in Paterson, New Jersey.

Document: First Inaugural Address, 1801

The Writings of Thomas Jefferson. Ed. H. A. Washington. Washington: Taylor and Maury, 1854. VIII, 1-6.

He was in Washington's Cabinet with his rival, Hamilton. He didn't want to see the federal government have increased power. Jefferson supported the French Revolution and states' rights. This was the inaugural address after he had tied with Aaron Burr which made the Federalists decide the president.

I see a good country and look for your guidence. Let us cooperate. If anyone thinks it is bad, let him see how we are the experiment of a people revolting from oppression. The government will restrain us.

His speech gave little to foreshadow his administration. He took a completely un-federalist policy.

Class 10-22-96

The major weaknesses in the constitution was the federal justice system. The constitution established a supreme court and failed to specify the details and the lower courts. They setup district courts under the legal customs of the district. The supreme court was established with six seats who gave itself the right to review legislative constitutionality.

They made a Bill of Rights. Ten of these were ratified quickly and two others were passed slowly. They also established executive departments, state, war, treasury, Attorney General, and Postmaster General. This is a continuation of the constitutional convention.

Soon, a party system developed. This was the extension of the conflict in the constitutional convention. The Federalists were concerned with mob rule and the Republicans were concerned with too much government. The 1790s has the most heated debates.

The Federalists are different from the Federalist Papers who pushed the constitution because they sympathized with a strong central government, especially Hamilton's policies which protected manufacturing and a national bank. Using tariffs and a national bank, he could encourage industrialization. The consumers will suffer because the Americans will hike prices. The government would be imposing taxes and the bank would have too much influence. It would also create a proletariat.

Class 10-23-96

Constitution

The constitution was not a completed document. The open-ended document has lasted 200 years because it was flexible. This vagueness causes opposition and troubles especially during the 1790s. This leads to the conflict between the Federalists, broad interpretation, and the Republicans, strict interpretation.

Party System

This conflict developed the party system.


FederalistsFederalists                  RepublicansRepublicans                   

Strong, central government              Concerned with states' rights            
Fear of democracy                       Concerned with individual rights         
                                        Fear of tyranny                          

Lead by Washington and Hamilton         Lead by Jefferson and Madison            

Supported by:                           Supported by:                            
speculators                             southern planters                        
New England merchants                   artisans                                 
professionals                           shopkeepters                             
manufacturers                           Interior west                            
bankers                                                                          

A Republic of Aristocracy               A More Democratic Republic               

A loose constitution                    A strict constitution                    

Industrialization                       Agrerian                                 



Table 5: First Political Parties

Hamilton's support of industrialisation is based on efficient division of labor. It would benefit the economy and encourage added manufactured value and self-sufficiency.

Hamilton also supported a national bank. This would finance the industrialization. This would be similar to the Bank of England which had encouraged their textile industry. Republicans thought of this as a way for the rich to get richer and this was unconstitutional.

The Federalists favored the British as they were modeling them. The Republicans sought more cooperation from France. The Federalists still saw Britain as a model.

Frontier and Foreign Relations

"There were essentially two important threats / crises that the US had to deal with pretty soon." They were the frontier and internation respect as a nation. The Pickney treaty with Spain was to preempt any Anglo-American alliance. This also gave a "strict" northern boarder with America. The Jay treaty was a result of the admiration of the Birtish. Combined with Jay's treaty, the tensions were relived and respect was gained. This treaty was controversial in America.

The impressment of American ships was deplorable. This almost lead Americans to declare war, and this fear of war sent John Jay. The Republicans saw that US was backing down from the British.

Class 10-25-96: Review

Republican ideals say that politicians are above the greediness. There are two variations on republicanism which are the federalists and republicans who feared mob rule versus tyranny.

Development of the Party System

The two sides fight over the French Revolution. The republicans favor the revolution while the Federalists don't like it. Another issue is the national bank. The debt is an issue especially the bonds and the state debt. Hamilton won on all these issues. With Jefferson's resignation, the Republican party is formed. There is also the issue of the Jay's Treaty, Pickney Treaty and trade.

The Alien and Sedition Acts established stuff against people against the government. The Sedition Act made it illegal to speak out against the government. This responded to the French delagation backward tactics and the XYZ Affair and French agression, leading to an undeclared war. The Alien Acts restricted immigration. They abused their power.

Jeffersonianism and the Era of Good Feelings

Jefferson didn't like the pomp of office. Washington was big. America was not populous. Jefforson was a party leader, but had no grass-roots stuff. They didn't know what to expect with the president

The Age of Jefferson

He protect states' rights and he also wanted to shrink government. He thought of a virtuous leaders but was practical.

Jefferson didn't want debt and used the military to reduce the tribute to Tripoli.

Jefferson had to face a Federalist judiciary. Adams had appointed judges at the last minute before the inauguration. The court compromised on the failed delivery of a commission (appointment of a judge) and said that it had no right to require its delivery. They tried to impeach a judge, but failed. Marshall, chief justice, had lectured Madison about the moral obligation to deliver the commission.

Napoleon Bonaparte had taken Louisiana again. This might allow England to take it, thus sandwiching the US. Spain closed New Orleans threatening the US Western farmers. The US wanted to get Florida and New Orleans, but bought the whole thing for $15 million. Jefferson foregoed an amendment granting specific land grabbing powers and rather let the Senate ratify the treaty. (Louisiana Purchase, 1803)

Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark with congressional funding to find latitude, longitude, and science as well as commerical things (1804). They brought back tall tales and tons of scientific data. They also had help from a French-Canadien fur trader and his wife.

Thomas Jefferson was popular but Aaron Burr had too many Federalist dealings so they got George Clinton and won with a landslide (1804).

The Gathering Storm

Jefferson's Coalition Fragments

The Napoleonic Wars made the US a pawn to others. Aaron Burr was doing intrigue and other stuff and shot Alexander Hamilton. He and James Wilkinson ploted to sever the US by taking several states. Wilkinson had betrayed Burr as he deserted him, midway through the plan. He was charged but aquited of treason because he didn't commit the act.

Jefferson and the Quids

Georgia had sold its western territories because of bribery. This was canceled by the next legislature, but had already been bought by others. Jefferson compromised and gave five million acres to investors. This angered Randolph, a person who thought like Jefferson. (Jefferson's view had changed.) Randoph opposed Jefferson's diplomatic expense which turned out to be a bid for Spainish Florida.

The Suppression of American Trade

Anglo-French war allowed the US to profit (1803). The Americans got past the British Rule of 1756 where one cannot open trade that was closed before war by taking produce, stopping it in America, then shipping it. This was declared illegal (1805, Essex case). The English and French tried to restrict American ships from going to the opponent. The US ships often had to line up, a few miles US ports to be searched by the superior British navy.

Impressment

This is where they take supposed deserters from a seizure of a ship. The US paied better and had better conditions. The US didn't like this. They seized the USS Chesapeake and impressed four members of its crew. This outraged America who replied by talking with the British, then the Embargo Act (1807).

Embargo Act

This would stop exports and imports. This didn't have the effect that the Americans wanted, which was to make the English and French respect neutrality of America. This made the US economy really bad. It started industrialization.

The Election of 1808

Jefferson dropped consideration of reelection. The Federalists made a comeback as they were gentlemenly and didn't campaign. The Republicans, now the Democratic Republicans won with Madison.

The Failure of Peaceable Coercion

Madison tried to blockade the West Indies but caused trade with Canada. Congress repealed the Embargo Act and replaced it with the Non-Intercourse Act (1809). The British thought because there were only two powers, England and France, there were no neutrals. Congress then reopend trade with both England and France and whoever drops restrictions first would see the US take its side. Napoleon did it to make the US get screwed and took ships anyway.

The Push into War & Tecumseh and the Prophet

The young Congressment pushed for war (war hawks). Tecumseh tried to unify the tribes against white settlement. The US negogiated, but talks broke off. The US crushed the village.

Congress Votes for War & the Causes of the War

Congress approved a war declaration from Madison in the Spring. The British reealed the restrictions of trade, the Orders in Council, in June. Madison could have but did not repeal the war declaration. This vote was along party lines, even though Madison didn't want it.

The British actions with the USS Chesapeake and the policies were causing the mess ups. Jefferson had thought the British were just trying to get and edge on France; Madison though they were trying to crush the US.

The War of 1812

Canada was key to the British plan to strangle America as it prepped for war under the Free Trade slogan. They thought they could easily get Canada, as the US sucked at sea. There wasn't a good military or a drive to fight. Up to 1814, the US did the offense then the British blasted the US, although not completely.

On to Canada & The Naval War

General Hull marched north, but had his supply line cut and had to surrender. General Harrison made Lake Erie and objective which was met by Captain Perry (1813). The United States had a small navy but had the three largest and fastest frigates in the world. The USS Constitution won some sea battles which cheered on the US. Canada failed and the frigates were soon surrounded in harbors.

The British Offensive

The US was willing to defend its home but not really attack Canada. Prevost, a Briton, attempted to split off New England, his attack met an entrenched US force and his naval support was blocked. The Americans were screwed at the Battle of Bladensburg, near Washington (1814) which was burned.

The Treaty of Ghent, 1814 & The Hartford Convention

The Americans got the old land boarders from before the war. Andrew Jackson had his reputation as he shreaded British troops. New England thought of seceeding as the Republicans bumbled. The Republicans were in a downfall as they tried deparately to address New England grivances in the Hartford Convention (1814). This smelled traitorous.

The Awakening of American Nationalism

The president's mansion was saved by whitewashing and became the White House. "The Star-Spangled Banner" was written at Fort McHenry over Baltimore. The Americans had pride for their accomplishments.

Madison's Nationalism and the Era of Good Feelings

There was a disagreement over internal improvements and their constitutionality. The Bank of the US was renewed in 1817. The Republic lost the Federalists and was stable.

John Marshall and the Supreme Court

The charter of Dartmouth College was decided as a contract and could not be publicly altered. States could not tax the bank of the United States. The Republicans didn't like the rulings because they thought the states were closer to the people.

The Missouri Compromise

They were trying to get Missouri as a slave state. This would upset the balence of slave states. This was the sectionalism that would be in the united states. They would do a Misssouri Compromise where south of there, there could be slaves and north there could not as long as both Missouri and Maine are admitted. They also provided for citizen's immunity in other states and agreed that slaves are property that require special movement conditions.

Foreign Policy Under Monroe

His secretary of state was John Quincy Adams, who was Republican. They demiliteized the Great Lakes and also they determined the boundary of Canada. They also assumed that they had West Florida and East Florida followed. The United States had a Pacific claim as Spain fixed its Mexico boundary.

The Monroe Doctrine

The Holy Alliance was rejected by Britain and they wanted US Briton declaration of South America. Monroe premepted this. This was to make the US seem stronger. We wanted Texas and Cuba and the US took a "top" position in the New World.

Conclusion

There was political parties. There was the war of 1812 and Republicans took more Federalist ideas. There was the Missouri Compromise and the high point of Republicans under Monroe.

Digression: Bulfinch's Boston

Boston was prospering with trade. They also had canvas industry to make the sails. The people were more "civilized and cold" than the Virginians. The Federalist elite had everything and people had little. They were stuffy and the town grew slowly. The elite tried to keep their "civilized" look and power. By 1820 the town was too large and the elite shattered.

Document: The Monroe Doctrine

THE MONROE DOCTRINE from the House of Documents, Eighteeth Congress, First Session, 1823-24, I (2), December 2, 1823, 13-15. Compiled from Petersen, eds. An American Harvest (Vol. 1)

Madison had a messed presidency. The young nation got to enjoy itself only during Monroe's Presidency. John Quincy Adams was the brains in the whole young republic. He got Florida. The British, with the Americans, wanted to fence off America from colonialization, but J.Q. Adams and the US went it alone.

This basically said that no power can colonize the Americas. It was ignored until 1844 with Oregon and later 1902 with Venezuela.

Document: The Personal Side of a Developing People

Larkin, Jack. Ed. Stephen B. Gates. Portratie of America (Vol. 1)

This examines the life of a young woman in the new Republic. It is set in Massachusetts and discusses courtship and marridge. There was a lot of premarital sex which led to pregancies. People preached against this. [Headings appear in actual text.]

Dour Visages

People were non-expressive which was different from the more energetic Blacks. The southerners and westerners carried themselves better than the stoic economic northerners.

A Pugent Folk

The manure was everywhere and baby diapers were simply dried, not washed after every use. Pigs did most of the garbage pickup.

Privy Matters

These outhouses were only used in dense areas or where farmers wished to captialize on the waste. There were chamber pots which was availible to most people.

Letting the Bedbugs Bite

Taverns had bugs and farmers were messed with them so that the Almanacs had instructions on how to sanitize. This was rejected by a Scotish woman who said people would commonly find fleas and ticks as they undressed.

Birth of the Bath

They normally washed in the kitchen with cold water, and only their hands and face. As private bathing chambers appeared, it became more accepted to do the true bath. Chamber sets allowed people to wash in privacy. Water closets and private chambers became more and more comon (1830).

Besotted Era

Everyone went to taverns and drunk and smoked. People of all ages drank hard cider. They thought drunk men were okay but women, no. There were a lot of fights in families and between families where wives and husband hit each other.

Public Punishment

Hanging were massive events where people would come from all over. This was normally reserved for murder. Other crimes had whipping posts and stocks.

Rise of Respectablility

People started opposing liquor consumption which dropped two-thirds by 1840. They started to stop mail delivery on Sunday and whipping and stocks started dissappearing. However slave states were slower in changing. They moved death sentences out of public view.

Sex Life of the Natives

People had little flings everywhere. Americans were reluctant to admit these things. Pregancy often lead to marriage. Bundeling allowed couples to sleep together with their clothes, however, this failed. Blacks had no legal marriage status so sex before marriage was more tolerated. Slave women had to submit to their masters wishes. Some women had turned to prostitution to get money while others wanted excitement. The theaters usually had prositutes on the top most galley.

Reining in the Passions

Bundling was fading (1820) and people had longer courtships and engagements with correspondence and letters. They began to limit the size of their families. Sexual control was promoted. They had originally thought that women had sexual desire but now they find that men have more.

Smoking and Spitting

There were pipes which grew longer and longer. Then there were expensive cigars. They spit everywhere, in courthouses, at balls.

From Deference to Equality & Land of Abudance

Shaking hands (1835) was a sign of equality while bowing was before that, despite the Revolution. Because of the better food, Americans were taller than Europeans. Pork was the universal meat. They paid attention to meat and bread, but food was getting more and more diverse.

Class 11-4-96: Jeffersonian Era

Jeffersonianism is more than the two terms of Jefferson being President. There was a dynasty of Federalist Virginians in the White House. Jeffersonianism is more followed by the Republicans and lastes from 1800 to 1824.

The election of 1800 is also known by the nickname, the Revolution of 1800. This was the first change of control of the political parties. They saw the end of the Sedition Acts. They scaled back the army, took away internal taxes, reduced debt, and cut spending. The idelogy transfered the power from the aristocracy with Jefferson's informal greetings in PJ's. The revolution wasn't a revolution because the judiciary remained Federalist. Adams made courts and appointed judges between the election and the inauguration so that Federalists would still have power. John Marshall is appointed by Adams as chief justice until 1835 and establishes the power of the court. The Republicans and Federalists essentially had the same ideals, but they just disagreed on petty issues. The Louisiana Purchase showed that both sides were the same and show that the Republicans are compromising and stuff.

The Louisiana Purchase (1803) stemmed from Napoleon Bonaparte's threat on America. They needed to get New Oreleans. Napoleon was getting screwed in the Carribean and he needed money so he sold it. The "Revolution" was okay. It implemented the tax policies and stuff, but they had to do the federal thing with the Louisiana Purchase. The agraian economy was eroding as industry was being brought in. The republicans can't do a thing about this natural development. Thus the Bank of the US is kept.

Class 11-6-96: War of 1812

How and why did the War come about?

Madison was president and he thought that the British was trying to strangle the US trade versus Jefferson who said that they were merely doing war things. This was probably the one of the most threatening factor. There was also pressure from Embargo, Non-intercourse Acts, and Macons' Bill #2. The Embargo Act attempted to hurt the British economy and force the repeal of the Orders in Council. They also wanted to remain neutral. The Non-intercourse act saved face and tried to stay neutral. The Western Expansion have more Indian and Settler conflicts.

Who supported the war? What were the war aims?

The war was started for neutral shipping rights as a neutral party. They had been violated during the Napoleonic Wars by the British and the English. Impressment and harassment of ships was particularly disturbing. The war hawks from the west and the south with some from the trading north supported war. It was incited by Orders in Council where they would search ships immediately out of US waters. The Northern merchants supported this as an alternative to the Embargo and Non-intercourse Acts.

The war aimed to take Canada. It was easier than attacking the British at sea. The war had little direct support of the people in raising armies.

What was the outcome of the war?

No land was exchanged. Since Napoleon was defeated, there was no more of a problem with the neutral trade. The Americans had "won" because they had had a successful war. This made the Brtish indepedence complete. The Americans had the offensive early in Canada without significant gains. The British land the Washington, a non-strategic target, and New Oreleans, after peace is declared. War is not really motivated in America. This is not a significant to Europe, but it shows that America can mess with the big guys.

How did the War of 1812 influence the first party system?

The Federalists got screwed as the anti-war party. The Federalists got messed up in the Hartford Convention. The secession threats splits the Federalists and messes them up.

Class 11-7-96: American Nationalism & the "Era of Good Feelings"

This is consensus politic time (1815-1819,1824). This is relatively short. There is the Missouri conflict and panic after 1819. The Federalists are now neigliable. The Republicans took over Federalist causes like renewing the Bank charter (1816) and enacting protective tariffs. Henry Clay starts the American System where he pushed to establish a national transportation system. This is the contriversy over internal improvements funded by the federal government. The proposals are adopted except for Henry Clay's National Road.

The Supreme Court is Federalists and reaffirmed the power of the federal government. Marbury versus Madison. The Missouri Compromise is where the southern and northern states argued about slave statehood. The northern and southern conflict was demonstrated. They had to let Maine and Missouri in with a line drawn (36°30") for slave state ability.

The Monroe Doctrine (1823) is where Americans try for power and keeps European away. This was not taken really seriously. The Adams-Onis treaty (1819) defines the US boarder and gives Florida.

The Transformation of American Society, 1815-1840

Caroline Kirkland moved from the east to the fronteir where she lost all the luxuries. She wrote about this and later benefited from the transportation revolution (1825).

Westward Expansion and the Growth of the Market Economy

The Sweep West & Western Society and Customs

By 1840 one-third of the people lived in the "West." There were the explorers and fur traders who went deep into the west and wrote stories emphasizing the bounty of the land. There were also a ton of states admitted after 1816, and the admission of new Western states was continuous since 1791.

The western migration occured in families who settled by water and had social events and contests with other neighbors. Women did a ton of chores and slaughtering animals. This rustic life was jabbed at all the time by easterners.

The Federal Government and the West & The Removal of Indians

The Constitution and Land Ordiences (1785 & 1787) set out land stuff. The Louisiana Purchase and the Spain Treaties made the US give out land to soldiers. They also built the road that lead people to settle.

Indians were a problem in the West even though some had assimilated into western culture. Some wanted to stay. Jackson, Monroe and Madison had all had policies that hurt the indians. The indians either sold their land and moved west or stayed to fall as second class residents. The Cherokee nation pressed suits into the Supreme Court who ruled that they were not a nation but a dependent organization under the state and entitled to federal protection. The Cherokees were betrayed by a minority within their tribe and with resistence moved west. The indians in the northwest territory also faired no better.

The Agricultural Boom & the Rise of the Market Economy

The Western move was in time because eastern lands were being depleted and the river system was good for shipping as well as food prices. The cotton rush started in 1793 with the invention of the Cotton 'Gin.

The farmers, rushed to make profit with cash crops, got into debt for lands, fluctuating prices, and other business related matters.

Federal Land Policyt & The Specutlator and the Squatter

The federal land policy was to sell one-mile square sections to groups of farmers. Instead speculators bought it. The original Federalist price was 640 acres minimum at $2 per acre. This was slowly reduced by Republicans who wanted small farmers. The speculators had the auction government market pinned and small farmers had to pay a lot. The banks were established to cut into the land speculation.

The squatter made the speculator want to sell. They could buy the land at a lower price if they had settled and improved. Becausse they had to pay the speculator off, they worked the land to death with cash crops, making them seek more land.

The Panic of 1819

The end of the war of 1812 saw Britain in recession, a bumper crop in Europe and a negative trade flow for the US. The state banks had put out too much paper money and the bank of the US started calling stuff in. This froze all the credit and speculators lost as land prices dropped. The farmers lost out as high tariffs went up and people blamed the bank of the US.

Transportation Revolution: Steamboats, Canals, and Railroads & The Growth of the Cities

They made highways, but were high cost without much profit. Livingston and Fulton in 1807 made a steamboat and got a New York monopoly which was shattered by a Supreme Court ruling and the Congress. Steamboats that had been found in England were improved and embellished. There were accidents like hull breaches, boiler explosions, and fires. They started to make canals instead of cheaper roads. There was the Erie Canal and the Main Line Canal (which dissassembled the ships) and other stuff. The price of shipping dropped. Railroads took off in 1825 as a cheaper alternative to expensive canals. They mainly were used between cities in the east until 1849 when more freight started travelling. The early railroad companies used rails of wood with iron on top, which kept maintenence costs high. The cities exploded from 1820-1860. Commercial water hubs sprouted.

The Rise of Manufacturing

Causes of Industrialization & New England Industrialization

During the early 1800s, manufacturing meant making by hand, and the US thought itself as a agricultural nation. The Embargo Acts stirred investment as well as transportation. British and other Europeans escaped to America with know how of technology. Immigrants also provided labor. The high wages also motivated automization.

Men had left New England for better stuff and women were left as well as tons of streams to power stuff. The initial mills only produced yarn to be made into cloth by women, but now they made complete products. Managers ran the mills with tons of young women who had to follow various moral codes and stuff. The factories looked morally okay, but it was humid, to prevent threads from breaking, and loud. Competition forced lower wages and longer hours.

Manufacturing in New York City and Philadephia

They were making cheap and expensive everything with not as much women working. They subdivided tasks and lowered wages to keep competitive. But, the workers could stay in their homes due to the closeness of people. They work at a miserable home. Artisans now started to enter factories as they were being outdone. The workers were treated worse and worse and in 1835 there was the first strike for a ten hour workday.

Digression: Tahlequah, Indian Territory

The indians were cheated by white government agents and by traders who traded rations for whiskey. They soon with white missionaries, established schools, presses, and books. They dropped their tribal divisions enough to form a council that would leade the indians. However, that was not enough to stop white advances and the intertribal raids.

Handout: Summary

People went West at first as traders and mountaineers. Later they went in families and had to rough it so they didn't have the eastern confort and finesse. The Federal government made roads and surveyed and sold the land. The Indians were giver rights by the Supreme Court but these were ignored. Agriculture was enhanced by Eli Whitney and later became commercialized. Federal Lands Policies allowed this commercialization to continue with speculation and cheap loans. The smaller farmer had to rely on burning out his land and squatting. In 1819, the National Bank tightened loans which collapsed the western system. With canals, steamboats and railroads, the western farmer had a cheaper way of transportation and with this growth, came bigger cities.

Industrialization stared with the Embargo act of 1807 and the War of 1812. New England had the first industries with young unmarried women running textile mills. Then later came the developments as New York and Philidephia produced other stuff.

The Rich and the Poor division grew. Blacks were free in the north but had little rights. The Middle classes improved but still wandered.

Professions were criticized as they had little experience in the west. Families lost their kids earlier and the kids had more independence. Women had better influences over the family and birth rates fell. Unions and other more democratic control rose as centralized lawyer and doctors fell.

The transformations during this time were widespread and thus changed the family and all aspects of society.

Movie 11-8-96

500 Nations Removal.

Many people moved West, armed and defending their new homes. The whites took the land. The indians resisted but missionaries undermined the native cultures. They wanted to tolerate and coexist in religions. The warriors want to alcohol.

Tecumseh had had a screwed tribe. They moved West to hope to stop the conflict. His little brother, Lalawathica had a vision as he collapsed. His vision said to return to the old ways. He was renamed Tensquatawai. Tecumseh embraced this message and spread the word. They formed a new town. Tecumseh transformed this religious movement into military and politics.

He promoted defending this common land. We will be scattered across the land and destroyed if we don't unite. The governor of Indiana Territory saw Tecumseh as a threat. Tecumseh could not control the actions of the tribes. The smaller tribes sold the country to the whites and Tecumseh rejected it. The Americans advanced anyway. Tecumseh traveled between the tribes to get a common defense. The Cherokee emulated the white culture and didn't want conflict. Tecumseh found prophet's town destroyed.

They rebuilt the town. They allied with the British to squash the United States. The unified resistence was a reality and American forts went down. The war started going bad. The British abandoned Detroit upon the approach of Americans. The British broke off when they made their stand. The Indians stood firm and lost.

Southern Removal

They had made the indians the assimilation of indians as American farmers. There were the five civilized tribes which adopted the white lifestyle. It flourished. There was a new government and republic as a state. There was a language developed and newspapers printed. The relation was marked by racism and the whites tried to uproot the cherokee. The Indian Removal Act was passed, the final betray of the Americanized Indians. The Cherokee council rejected the act and reminded the death penalty for unauthorized sale of tribal land. Many died during the move. The Cherokee leader tried to stop the movement, lawsuits to the Supreme court, talked with President Jackson, petitioned Congress, and wrote letters. The Cherokee was a sovereign nation, as ruled by the Supreme Court, but Jackson didn't want to enforce it.

The richest landholder sold the land without authorization and made the treaty and relocated. He defied the council and made it anyway. They had two years to move, but they defied it and were deported by the military.

Class 11-13-96: Market Economy

  1. Development of a nationwide market-oriented economy: This is where they sold stuff around the nation which contrasts to the household economy where houses were relatively self-sufficient.
  2. Transportation: There were canals and the national road and railroads with steamboats. These rerouted the traffic from north to south to an west to east route. They create the first inland boom towns. Travel time is being reduced.
  3. Industrialization and Manufacturing: Textiles was the first development especially in New England (Waltham & Lowell). There was also shoemaking, iron, rifles and hats. The development of interchangeable parts was necessary to get a better division of labor. This becomes superior to European systems (1850). There are protective tariffs.
  4. Commericial Agriculture: The development of the cotton gin makes a land rush. The crops grown are now grown to be sold. The indians were kicked out and this allowed more land to be used. Machinery was more prevalent which forced significant capital. It's harder for people to start from nothing as farmers. New England is less and less significant for farming as the Northwest (Illinois) takes over.
  5. Finances: The legal systems make it easy to make stock holding companies, incorporations, which limits liabilities. Government and states encouraged large banks. There are investment houses.
  6. Workers and the changing workplace: There is the growing gap between the unions and management, similarly the rich and the poor. The factory has many more workers than the small shop with less than 50 employees. The middle class forms at this time. The skilled artisans are messed up by the industrization. There is also the boom and bust cycle where it affects people nationally!

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Politics, Religion, and Reform in Antebellum America

People applauded Lafayette during his visit in 1824. They liked him because Washington thought of him as a son. The ties of the Founding Fathers were going away. Whigs and Democrats appeared and got stuff from the voters. Some people didn't like politics, but they had to to get what they wanted. They went away from the thoughts of the Fathers but still revered them.

The Transformation of American Politics, 1824-1832

From the Republican party, there was the Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren crowd (later called the Democrats) and the John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay group (called the Whigs). Whigs encouraged federal growth whil the Democrats wanted states' rights.

Democratic Ferment

Voting requirements went down and appointed offices, including the electoral college, went elected. The politics of the whimpy Federalists versus the Republicans bored voters. The idea of party caucuses came around.

The Election of 1824

The election had four candidates, J.Q. Adams, A. Jackson, Henry Clay, and William Crawford. Calhoun had dropped to the vice presidency. Clay, Adams, and Jackson didn't get a majority so the House got to choose. Clay supported Adams and dropped out. Adams wone and appointed Clay as Secretary of State. Then Jackson called foul.

J.Q. Adams as President & The Rise of Jackson

He antagonized people with the Clay appointment and the push for internal improvements. Jackson appealed to the Southern slave holders and one of them and to people as an indian hunter. Van Buren sensed the changes in the messed up political climate. He started to split the party and in 1828, the Democrats ran Adams.

The Election of 1828 & Jackson in Office

They mudslinged between Jackson and Adams. Jackson did better because he said Adams was an aristocrat with silk underwear. Jackson swept especially in the south and split vote in the middle states and the Northwest.

Jackson had run on repute and not issues. He didn't need to make internal improvements in the south because they grew non-perishable cotton. He also replaced federal employees with his ones. He made the Indian Removal Act and had to walk the fence on tariffs which helped the north but made the south pay more for goods.

Nullification & Jackson Versus Calhoun

Calhoun wanted to be president. He wanted southern support and opposed the northerner favorted tariffs.

Calhoun had snubed Jackson's cabinet member and Jackson remebered the time when Calhoun had opposed his military raids. So he wanted to get rid of Calhoun.

South Carolina declared the tariff of goods as nullified. Jackson marched down with troops. They agreed to slowly reduce the tariffs from 1833 to 1842 as long as federal troops will monitor and collect the money. (Compromise of 1833)

The Bank Veto & The Election of 1832

Jackson didn't like the bank of the US. He thought it was too privileged and too powerful as a nearly independent instution. He vetoed the recharted bill.

Jackson defended states rights in Bank and tariffs, however, he didn't like dangerous stuff like nullification. He ran again with Van Buren. Jackson won, and Clay could not get the Presidency to keep the Bank of the US.

Class 11-14-96: The Rise of Mass Politics

Politics goes into daily life and more people get into politics. 'Tis the reason we call it a Jacksonian Democracy. Property requirements for voting are reduced or dropped in states. The West has less voting requirements. The West seemed the most democratic place. Women's and universal sufferage was introduced here. The south is more conservative and resists change. There were written ballots that made it easier to oppose stuff. There were more meritocracy and people were elected for their actions and appointed offices were now chosen by election. The parties are institutionalized as they grow grass rooted. There is the first party machine by Martin Van Buren. In 1832, the parties had their first conventions. This would get more people involved. There was more populat votes for the electoral college. There is more voter turnout (1824-28%, 1828-58%, 1840-80%).

The nullification crisis of 1832 started the secessionist conflict. South Carolina opposed protective tariffs. Calhoun lead this movement. Antibellum means before the war, civil. They don't like it because it increases the prices of the imported goods. The British also imported less as a result and hurt the southern cotton people. They saw this as a sectional legislation. The nullification theory states that a state can say no to any unconstitutional law. This is a compromise as some radicals wanted secession. Henry Clay makes the compromise with the US Government where the tariffs are slowly lowered while the military can enforce this.

The Bank Controversy and the Second Party System

The War on the Bank & The Rise of Whig Opposition

The United States had no national currency. Individual banks issued currency and speculated on stuff by giving easy loans. The poorer would get poorer and the rich richer under this system.

Jackson could have let the bank die quietly, but he wanted to kill it because it started to close up the economy. He deposited federal funds in select state banks, but this was later expanded in 1836 by the Deposit Act which spread it out to tons of banks. This created more loans and paper money which was the exact opposite of the banks that Jackson wanted. They disagreed on the soft-paper-money and hard gold money. Some people like the Locofocos wanted hard money.

The Whigs got the support of the reformers and the people who didn't like the nullification nullification by Jackson. This included the south. Reformers, mostly Protestant, brought the Protestant vote which also made the Catholics Democrats. There was the anti-Mason movement which was part of the reformers which also got more support. The reforms just found that they were more compatible with the whigs.

The Election of 1836 & The Panic of 1837

The whigs got screwed as Clay was a drunkard and thus ran four candidates and hoped to push into the House of Representatives. Martin Van Buren actually got a majority and won.

After Jackson left office as a great man who had let the United States grow huge despite a 13% inflation rate. The state banks soon after locked up and prevented redemption of specie after May 1837. This made the economy really bad. The Bank of the US, under a Pennsylvania charter also collapsed sending a larger spiral downward. This made the poor dirt poor and some guy named William Miller predicted the word end in 10/22/1843, but by then, the depression was over. It came from the fact that Jackson had signed an order that all federal land sales had to be paided in hard currency and that Britain had stifled US investments.

The Search for Solutions & The Election of 1840

Van Buren made a quick dash to stop the depression with the Independent Treasury Bill (1837) which made the government store their own money. He also made a law that would prevent the issue of small bank notes.

The election was Harrison versus Van Buren. Van Buren had written letters to his supporters and accused the Harrison would be an old fogy sipping cider in a log cabin. Harrison ran on the fronteirsman character and talked with people and sang log cabin songs and had the Log Cabin newspaper and drank cider. He swept.

The Second Party System Matures

There were more eligable voters voting in this election, causing the largest proportional rise in voter turnout ever. The log cabin campaign and the depression aided this endevor and it showed the maturity of the party system.

Class 11-15-96

The Second Party System had two Parties, the Whigs and the Democrats. The Democrats were lead by Jackson and Van Buren who were afraid of the central government, much like the Jeffersonians. They stood Anti-National Bank on the grounds that Nicholas Biddle was corrupt, it benefited only the rich and dictated national policies. The Democrats had major support from the southern planters who were suspicious of industries and the creation of a proletariat as well as the westerners who wanted an egrarian economy, and last of all the non-protestants.

The Whigs were lead by Clay, Daniel Webster, and Calhoun. They wanted the American System where policies would support capitalism. High tariffs, the Bank of the US, and a National Road would all help the industries. Additional internal improvements of roads, canals, and railroads would encourage growth. There would also be less power to the states. Henry Clay is a strong advocat of this system which makes the US a world power. The Whigs got their support from the Northeast manufacturer and merchant classes. The support extended to the traders and wealthy investors of the West and south. Als reform movements like the Second Great Awakening, abolitionist, and women's rights supported the Whigs. There were also people like Calhoun who switched because they hated some person (Jackson).

Especially with the economy, nullification crisis, national bank, protective tariffs, the new party system came in the 1830s.

Jackson made sure the aristocracy couldn't control the gevernemnt. He wanted peopl to have power and to be able to obtain and fufill their dreams equally. The Bank of the US only helped the rich and allowed them to get loans. Jackson argued that the state banks would be more responsive. With the Bank gone, Jackson screws his sucessor, Van Buren.

There was Chief Justice Taney who implemented more Jacksonian politics. There was also the Charles River Bridge (1837) and the competition of bridges that was probably something with the internal improvements things.

Hofstadter: Andrew Jackson and the Rise of Liberal Capitalism

Jackson was part of the new southern aristocracy which was from the middle class. He got screwed during the revolution. He wandered around the south during his young adult years. He got caught up in a speculator, William Blout. He was ruthless but kind to the standard citizen. He resented the easterners, but he rose quickly through the political hierarchy. His military excellence thrust him into the nation.

More people got the votes and the parties disappeared. Still, the candidates were made by Congressional caucus. The public was being denied their rights to vote in their people. The people in the West on the other hand were raging with the debt thing and it allowed debtors into office who erased their debts. Jackson had gotten screwed two times by banks, once during a business then again as he was settling down. The Tennessee people fully still adopted the paper system. Jackson got screwed in 1824 when Clay gave to Adams. He played the tariffs and won in 1828. He ignored popular mandate and was loyal to his buddies.

This is similar to the Roosevelt New Deal but the New Deal had though the economy was developed. Jackson had a small town America without tons of industires. Small business, farmers, and workers didn't like the banks. Some farmers bought land to speculate not to grow. There were state sponsored monopolies of roads and the like. The Bank was as big and powerful as the government by issuing tons of paper money. The bank had stayed out of politics, but it had too much indepedence. He vetoed the attempt to recharter the Bank, saying that there will always be difference, but people should be the same under the law. He wanted to promote the start up of business and not give any advanteges.

The killing of the Bank of the US created a state based credit boom which snapped back later. It might have been possible to recharter the bank under more controlled terms. The made it easier to bank at the state level. Jackson's Taney appointment was crucial in the Charles River Bridge. They wanted to restrain another bridge to prevent loss of business. They allowed the charters that didn't specify monopolies to be overrun with newer ones. This allowed more businesses to start up. Jackson was a hero who had leveled the playing field.

Class 11-19-96: Jacksonian America

  1. Jackson supported the opportunities for small entrepreneur, as he experienced what many start ups felt.
  2. He had the characteristics of the first generation Western aristocrats.
  3. The establishment of new states, universal sufferage, and grass-roots politics was seen.
  4. Jackson supported nationalism, despite his emphasis on states' rights. This is seen in the nullification crisis and the pursuit of indian lands. It is a slight contradiction, allowing expansion, but allowing autonomy within the union.

Larger plantation owners who were starting manufacturing did not support Jackson. He is most popular in the West and the South. He was the first common man president.

This movement encompass the northern middle class and the market economy. These factors interact with each other and the middle class is particularly important.

The Development of the Middle Class

The rise of the middle class could be caused by:

  1. Equal oppotunuty and equal protection under law
  2. Availibility of credit
  3. Participation in political process
  4. Break up of families and their economies because the industrialization and growth of commercial farming -- The sons move west.
  5. Family size was smaller and education had more emphasis than inherited land. They get married later.
  6. Rising specilization
  7. Struggling shopkeepers and aritsans -- Sons don't follow their fathers as much.
  8. Changing gender roles and family structure -- There is a clearer public and private differentiation. Women are less in the workplace and take over the private arena such as childraising. The father had to impose the will on the child which changed to mother's love and nurturing the child.

This is the beginning of the Victorian ideology. There were more separation between the gender roles and public and private. This starts in New England and spreads around. This is termed the craddle of the middle class as the middle class develops from this time (early 1800s).

The Rise of Popular Religion

The Second Great Awakening & Eastern Revivals

Religion in the Americas made freedom and liberty important and renforced it rather than opposed it as in Europe. The revivals focused on outdoor camp meetings where mostly farmers who had had religious experienced preached and sung. The Methodists had got a lot of ground this way. This imposed some order in the frontier.

As people from New England and wealth seekers from other regions flocked to New York, Charles G. Finney worked the crowds. He was the leading reformer and he said that revivals were human and perfection was possible. This made him radical, but it said what people wanted to hear.

Critics of Revivals: The Unitarians & The Rise of Mormonism

They did not like the revivals as being too emotional. They also were composed of rich and educated and had grown slowly. They said Jesus was human. Mormons were founded by Joseph Smith. He found something from Lehi and translated it (1827) and showed that America was the religious center. People converted and went westward to voncert indians. The Smith challenge to the constitution and the bible was abhored and rejected by the mainstream. He ran for president and was lynched (1844). The Mormons moved west to Utah which later went to the US and they were prospering and dominated the local government. They had polygamy and appealed to the poor.

The Shakers

They had the anti-sex message, but they, as were the Mormons, were separated but able to harness Finney's message.

Class 11-20-96

So far, the reforms in antibellum America sees changes in politics, social structure, economy, and religion. These transformations are interacting with each other. Contributing to a new US, these changes respond and aid to industry. Many historians think of this time as the beginnings of modernity.

The Second Great Awakening

This is more than just a religious movement. It has an important impact on the reform movements. Noticable first in New England, the movement moves toward Kentucky and back. This was a reaction to the decay of society and the breakdown of the social order. The market economy created tons of stress and needed more religion. It was a response to ratonal Christianity, Deism. This undermined religion with scientific logic. This movement responded to this threat.

The Methodists as well as Presbyterians and Baptists benefited. The message centered on self-salvation by good works and a rejection of predestination. The northern middle class was solidified and reform movements were aided. This was due to the emphasis on active evangelism. There are the frontier camp meetings where people publically converted. In the Northeast, Charles G. Finney was instrumental and worked through the community. The people in the northeast were all converted, especially the people who lost authority like merchants and manufacturers. This would establish a new social order. The west had more poor involvement. The people who joined the church stayed in the factories longer.

The public school reform is very important since it spreads the idea of free public education. Massachusetts leads the public schooling. Horace Mann is particularly important as the secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education (1837). The school year was lengthed. Teachers are better trained, and the school year is longer. They pass the compulsory school law in 1852. There are prisons developed and mentally ill, etc.

The Age of Reform

The reform movements during 1824-1840 focused on blacks and women. The shunned politics and thought they were on the side of God, having come from the revivals, but not religiously extreme.

The War on Liquor

  1. Supported by women
  2. Alcohol encouraged by Western movement
  3. 1834: American Temperance society
  4. Gained momentum from the Panic of 1837
  5. 1838-1851: Maine and Massachusetts get alcohol sale and manufacture bans

Public School Reform

They changed the school from reading and counting and two months to standardized texts and ten month school years with mandatory attendance. There were also grade levels. In 1852 Massachusetts made the mandatory school thing. There was resistence from the farmers and the catholics. With grade levels, the school masters became women and it became a vehicle for reform ideas.

Abolition

They wanted to get rid of the black slaves and send them back to Africa. But most slaves were natives of America and didn't want to leave. The American Colonization Society (1817) who wanted to do this got little done. Abolitionists were hated and killed. They published newspapers like The Liberator and the Genius of Universal Emancipation. Prominent people included Benjamin Lundy and Lloyd Garrison. They had their arguments over running for politics. Later they had disagreements of the role of women who were supporting the movement. They flooded congress with petitions and southern reprentatives got a gag rule that tabled all of them.

  1. Benjamin Lundy
  2. Lloyd Garrison
  3. Anglina & Sarah Grimké
  4. Lewis and Arthur Tapan
  5. Theodore Dwight Weld
  6. James G. Birney
  7. Charles G. Finney

Women's Rights

Women were assigned the sphere of home, allowing participation in reform movements, but this undermined equality under law. They supported the abolition movement and later organized the Seneca Falls convention. This movement wasn't as popular especially because of the link to unpopular abolitionism.

  1. Anglina & Sarah Grimké
  2. Lloyd Garrison
  3. Lady Stone
  4. Lucretia Mott
  5. Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Penitentiaries and Asylums

  1. Poverty was perpetual part of society.
  2. They had used the gallows as punishment rather than locking people up. Now they locked people up in isolation and often disciplined them.
  3. The poor were placed in houses to pick them up and put them into productive society.
  4. They made the assumption that they could help people. They thought that the freedoms were too unstructured and taught the less fortunate order.

Utopian Communities

Robert Owen believed in utopias, an alternate to factories, an founded New Harmony. They moved to the United States because of cheap land and experimentation. It soon fell apart, but the ideas remained. Later communities came about. They never got big and didn't attract as much as the religious movements.

Conclusion

  1. Temperence
  2. Changing of Society
  3. Two Party System

Digression: The Oneida Community

John Humphrey Noyes founded this in 1848. He advocated "free love" where there was marriage but open sexual contact. They had communism and produced stuff. They later died out in 1881. He assigned women household stuff. He breeded people young to old. Their radical ideas held them together while screwing the world.

Life, Leisure, and Culture, 1840-1860

Technology helped life as people shunned the blossoming population. Artists and Americanism sprouted as Europe followed along. This made lagging effect as technology was distributed unevenly and as diseases and morality still wrenched at society

Technology and Economic Growth

Agricultural Advancement

It made it comfortable for everyone as they turned to science to make it more effecient and nicer. Farmers got new machinery like Deere's steel plow and McCormick's mechanical reaper which saved labor. They also started to try to improve the land in the east as the west had better land.

Technology and Industrial Progress

The Americans embraced technology making small labor saving gadgets which impress the British. They also remark at the interchangeable parts which save labor by allowing people to produce one part earlier than another and also reduce fitting time. The telegraph was quickly adopted and lines put up in a matter of six years. This might have been caused the the massive distances in the nation.

The Railroad Boom

Similarly due to distances, railroads sprouted. Europeans had classes like today's airlines. The Americans only had one class with swiveling and reclining chairs. The trains were not able to be tracked, lighted, or precisely timed especially with time differences. There were delays because of one track, not doubles. By 1860, kerosene lamps and telegraphs got rid of the first two problems, as with stronger engines allowed travel without getting out and pushing.

Cargo moving east went here. This made the west seem close and no longer was a pioneer. Railroad aid stopped in 1860, as they were initially supported by the states. People invested in railroad stock and securities and the financial center moved to New York.

Rising Proseperity

The steam engine allowed year round factory work and this way urbanites didn't lose winter like farmers. The urban people had to work father and children to keep up on debts, the farmer had more food and land security, but the land workers had less than the urbanites, explaining the move to urban cities.

[REST OF THE CHAPTER IS SKIPPED, REFER TO THE CLASS PRESENTATION HANDOUTS]

The Old South and Slavery, 1800-1860

Even at the time of the revolution, the south was only a direction not a region. There was a slow separation between the Upper and Lower South in terms of slavery. They stayed together because of common interests as the North started shunning them.

King Cotton

After tobacco was lost due to exhausted land and due to the lack of British protection, they went to cotton production. Slaves grew as people used them double time for corn and cotton production. This allowed them to remain self-sufficient while making money.

The south, upper and lower benefited from the three-fifths clause and also the economic ties. The south was different from the north in that it opposed industrialization and was more interested in agriculture. They also didn't like compulsory education as eating away at their taxes. They already had a higher literacy rate than the rest of the country. The north thought of them as laggers and lazy people, but they had comparable per capita incomes as northerners.

Social Relations in the White South

The south was not all rich plantation people with the struggling poor. There was the people with tons of slaves, very few, and moderate slave holdings. There were the plantations, small slave owners, yeoman (family farmers), and the people of the pine barrens. The aritsans affiliated themselves with one of these groups.

There were large plantations that were essentially self-contained communities with large incomes. There were also the west ward moving smaller farms. The luxuries only came with slave selling as the were the major assets that most farmers had. They also were constantly in debt because of the fluctuating prices of cotton.

Wives were often in charge and kept accounts while their husbands searched for new land. They also were discouraged by their husbands having mulatto kids. Often they would house guests which put a strain on them but allowed some socialization. The smaller slave owner people had the yeoman outlook and didn't want to become big plantatinos. They often resented the big guys "helping" with their slaves. The yeoman had no slaves but wanted to remain self-sufficient rather than profitable. The pine barrens were log cabiners that were often construed as really poor. They treated unimproved and unenclosed land as public and hunted.

The people groups were scattered but democratic so that no one group got all the power. The slave holding classes shrunk from 1830 to 1860 and the Florida governor proposed that every white man be entitled to a slave, so that interest in the institution continues. They didn't want the emancipation of blacks so that they could sit undisturbed in their railroad cars and their daughters would marry white. They tried to portray slavery as good intrisically rather than an necessary evil. The clergy and church split north and south.

Honor and Violence in the Old South

The South had a ton of extremes with deprevity running down to people being others' property and hospitality to violence with kicking people in the genitals and gouging out eyes. Above all, this was the white population that was doing this, not the "savage" blacks.

The upper class whites did not resort to random violence. Used by the English and French soldiers, duels could result from any percieved, intentional insult on a person. They arraigned a future date, place, and weapons for the duel through friends who also tried to settle the thing peacefully. They did not turn to the law cause that would be whimpy.

The evangelists were thought of as poor people's things. The upper classes finally got the word in 1830. The evangelists spoke against dueling and drinking and gambling.

Life Under Slavery

Slaves had kind and messed up masters and with the kind ones, they sometimes liked them, even though they didn't like slavery. The master always hired the slaves to do work, so kindness had a messed up aspect to it. The perception of the work depended on the time and the industry.

The slave populations changed from the 1700s to the 1830s as male and female ratio balenced from the male only shipping and densities of slaves rose from the colonial sparseness that originally prohibited families.

Slaves started one hour before dawn and worked in the fields. The women sometimes did washing and cooking for the field hands and the house. They were often whipped and badly treated. Some slaves worked in the house where they were held to a higher social standard.

The slaves had marriages sometimes even made by the masters. Some masters tried to keep families together, but with economics, they couldn't. Slave marridges didn't protect against white males and the children produced would often be taunted by the mistress. The slaves had many other family ties that whites overlooked like grandparents, aunts, and uncles.

The United States had 36% of the slave population in 1830 while only receiving 5% of the slave imports. This is because there was more health with compatible agricultures of corn and cotton as well as a quickly balenced male female ratio.

Off the plantations, slaves were part of the industrial sector doing mining, textiles, loadings ships, and other tasks. They would gain skills and supervise other blacks and even unskilled whites. They had more oppotunities than blacks in the north in this sense as all the whites flocked to make small cotton farms. They also were treated better in the cities as they were rural slaves that were rented to the urban factories, thus if they died or were some how messed up, the lenders wouldn't lend so factory managers kept them healthy.

Free Blacks mostly lived in cities selling fruit. The black community had their churches and journals. They earned money and sometimes even bought slaves. After 1810 and the Nat Turner rebellion, free Black population didn't grow anymore as manumission laws became tighter and freedom of movement between and freedom to live within states were restricted. The southern black realized that they had to stick together because no other blacks were being freed.

There were only three organized slave uprisings, Prosser, Vesey, and Turner. These failed because there were the turncoat slaves who assessed the insurmountable odds. There was too many whites and not enough blacks to allow for a critical mass and the whites were too well prepared. Some slaves escaped to freedom, but most escaped to wives, more lenient masters, or from punishment. Masters locked up everything to prevent theft and were constantly in fear of arson and poison, so they didn't punish too harshly.

The Emergence of African-American Culture

Initially, the slaves were from different tribes that didn't know how to talk to each other. They eventually adopted English pidgin and dropped gender and to be. Some words like banjo and goober (peanut) were adopted into standard English.

The Africans had many religions so that would not unite them together. Because of the commonalities with Christianity and the Great Awakenings, the slaves adopted the Methodist and Baptist ministries. Some slave preachers like Vesey, Turner, and Prosser used the Bible to justify their rebellions, but the white and black (in public) ministers said, "Obey your master." This allowed the church to grow more as slavery could coexist, and church were integrated although there was separate seating.

The slaves liked to shout out during serviece and made rhytmic stuff with metal. They made up chants and spirituals that the masters encouraged because the slaves would work harder, but they insisted that only good hymns be sung in church.

Conclusion

The north and the south split. The north saw a south that would never change. The south saw a bleeding edge north that was completely different from the mostly agricultural world. The slaves didn't accept the institution but resisted and got Christianity.

Class 12-2-96: Cotton and the "Old South"

Between the 1820s to 1860s many changes occur:

  1. There is a difference between the Upper South (Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee) and the Lower South (Mississippi, South Carolina, Texas, Arkansas, Louisianan, and Alabama).
  2. Creating a mass slave migration, this transformation occurs as the cotton industry, "Cotton Belt," grows and moves. Slave counts increase ten fold in the Lower South.
  3. The Upper South has some manufacturing. They produce slaves and profit from the internal slave trade. Producing hemp, wheat, and other products, the Upper South has economic diversity as tobacco drains the soil. The slavery is slowly disappearing in this region.
  4. The people would buy frontier land and have slaves and farm then move on.
  5. Slaves in this and plantation life was a part of their lives and they wouldn't know what to do with them if there were industries. The profitablility of cotton made it hard to resist slavery.
  6. There was too much independence in the development of industry.
  7. They needed to get captial and that meant selling slaves and land.
  8. They just despised commerce people and trade. The stereotypical southerner was the relaxed, leisurely aristocrat, called the "cavalier" image.

Only a quarter of the white people owned slaves. This contradicts the "cavalier" image that we often see. The non-slave holding people went with this because slaves were status symbols and feared slave retaliation as a result of emancipation like blacks taking their women. They agreed with the racists principles of the South. The poorer non-slave owners wanted to keep the slaves under them.

Class 12-3-96

Documents

One document is from an overseer. He whips all the defiant slaves and gets mad and tries to shoot them. There is a guide to managing a plantation from a young owner. He wants to give an even hand and strict justice. There needs to be order and structure. There is a set of rules and regulations.

The management guy is more reformed and seems to be more just than the religious systems. This is paternalism and treat slaves like your children. He wants to make the management glorified. He had to accept slavery fully.

The rules make it seem like the slave are being locked into. This is also reflected, the ordering, in companies. This seems to deviate from the paternalism where there is slaves as property. It establishes a prison system.

The blacks seems to incite the anger of the overseers. The overseers are definately uneducated. They had the most difficult job in the plantations were the owners would often leave.

They were better treated than the factory workers and they had some sort of pension system. There is still a fear of slave revolts and rebellions even with the paternalistic stuff. The social structure started with the master, overseer, drivers, domestic servants, and field hands. "Uncle Tom" was a stereotype of blacks that kiss up to whites. There is the thing of sexually promiscuous slaves. "Sambo" was another one that blacks are humorous, indolent, and infantile. "Nat" was named after Nat Turner as the incorrigible run away rebel.

Class 12-4-96: African American Culture & Consciousness

Most of these stories were collected after the Civil War. It has been hard to document the slave culture. These stories were entertaining for the slaves. It was overall important in developing and retaining some sort of identity.

There was a story where the slaves made up make believe diseases that "killed" livestock. There was the lion, jackass jokes and the religion stuff. They wanted to tell God about what was happening.

Religion

This was a key part of the culture and gave some hope. It united the groups. It was more integrated and attempted to enforce slavery and there was also the freedom type of thing and equality. It was separated north and south and black and white. The southern religions accepted slavery but the north made emancipation. It worked both ways enforcing slavery and allowing the precident with the Jewish slavery. It should be noted that all three slave revolts were lead by biblical supporters. The mix of African and Christian religions made a unique culture.

Slave Families

The plantations allowed marridges unlike other slave populations in the Americas. Most slaves wanted mates on other plantations. They could overlook the brutality of the whites with their wife or children. This is the reason why uncles, cousins, and the like would be able to isolate the parents and take over from distance. They were less likely to rebel with wife and kids and this translated to money. The selling and buying of slaves disrupted families (about half of the marridges). The fathers didn't have any control as a result of the slave societies.

Immigration, Expansion, and Sectional Conflict, 1840,1848

The Americans thought of it as their right to expand West. There was a lot of immigration at this time. They thought that expansion would get rid of the race issue and sectional conflict.

Newcommers and Natives

The immigrants were scamed at the port in their home country then they came to see the independence and isolation in the American farmers and they also had little money. The method of transportation was equivalent to slave ships. Most of them settled down in the cities and initially arrived on shipping routes. They created a cheap labor force for the factories.

Ther Germans were diverse and came from the then city-states of Germany. Some were skilled and formed stuff like Levi's and Steinway and Sons. They were diverse enough to form their own little communities, which isolated them from Americanization.

The irish started comming after their soldiers returned from the war of 1812 and saw a good land. Then the potato famines cause more immigration. The irish worked dirt cheap and they were screwed by the factory managers. Some ran stores and got lucky, but they generally hated free blacks and abolitionists as they were the major source of competition.

There was an anti-Catholic lash because the Irish depressed wages that were already low with industrialization. They made stories and spoke of conspiracies to take over the country. Some tried to make land reform where everyone would be come self-reliant on their own plot of land. Some others thought of strikes and unions which were fortunately declared legal. Because the unions were so small, they were ineffective.

The revolutions of 1848 saw some politicians fleeing to the United States. They took over political organizations manily the democrats and had their Catholic, Protestant Bible spats which destroyed homes.

Class 12-6-96: First Wave of Immigration, 1820-1860

They came from Ireland and German States. There was a total of 5 million immigrants of which 3.3 million com in 1845-1857. This must compare with the 1800 population of 5 million and 20 million in 1845. They came for economic, religious, political, and famine. There was a massive advertising campaign sponsored by states and companies. They settled in cities, St. Louis, San Francisco, New York, Boston, and other coastal cities. The cities soon had a majority of foreign born immigrants. They faced little money and discrimination because they were taking jobs. The Irish Catholicism caused more tension. There are riots and other civil disturbances. People liked Germans better because they were in families, spreading out, and older and more educated than the Irish. They got into the political machines and democratic party. The immigrants voted in blocks.

The West and Beyond

The West in 1840 was still the region between the Mississippi and the Appalachians. The independence of Mexico saw the take over of all Spanish land in the West which included California. There was the northern West which was jointly ruled by Britain and America. Russia gave up its claims of the West and stayed in Alaska.

There in the West were the American, Protestant, individualistic, traders who were eagerly accepted for their goods by the heirarchical Spanish Catholics. They made permanent settlements and adopted some Mexican culture. They started west from Missouri and they also rounded the Strait of Magellan to port at San Francisco. They didn't really pose a threat to Mexico.

They had settled using missions with the conversion of the local indians as a goal. Mexico started to use the missions as secular slave camps and distributed land to government people. The indians took revenge and the Mexicans killed the indians.

During the 1820s, the Mexican government encouraged Americans to come to Texas and settle as naturalized citizens. This didn't work too well because the Americans were unscrupulous traders and distrusted the Mexicans. In 1830, Texas was closed to further immigration as there had been a revolt in 1826. During 1835, there was a full revolution as the Mexican president started to consolidate his power. Texas declared itself independent.

The other Mexican territories of California and New Mexico welcomed Americans as a way to improve the economy. The Americans had Spanish wives and lived just like everybody else. There were favorable reports and people streamed in. Oregon was even more favored as it was jointly occupied by the British and the Americans.

The settlers went overland with guidebooks which understated the distances from the east and weren't really good at all. There were stories of indian raids but they didn't occur that often. The indians often helped the travellers. The people in california felt no alliagiance to Mexico. They wanted a little to be independent, perhaps a protectorate of France or Britain. The Americans there however, had no such division in politics.

The Politics of Expansion

The Whigs had got all the elected branches of governement in 1840. But, their president died, Harrison, leaving a semi-Whig, Tyler, in the President seat. This got screwy because he vetoed everything. Then the next election, the Whigs lost control of the House and barely hung on to the senate, and the president was who knows what.

Tyler had only the foreign policy card for the second election, he had negotiated with Britain to get northern territory. He wanted to get Texas, but this was clouded by the slavery issue.

The next election in 1844 left Tyler with no support. Polk as a Democrat and Clay as a Whig got screwy. Polk managed to balence tariffs and annexation while Clay sent a mixed message which made it really bad. This made some of his Whigs desert which cost him the presidency.

People wanted to expand as a result of the Texas involvement. They used God and self-determination to justify it and they wanted to keep the agricultural nature of the United States so that they would have low tarrifs. However, they didn't want an ungovernable Empire.

Polk used the spirit of manifest destiny to claim all of oregon. This was outrageous, but his real objective was to get just up to the 49th parallel that the US was shooting for. Soe what he campaigned was all or none of Oregon. Then he got the congress to end the joint-rule treaty and claim the whole thing, up to 54° 40'. The british could either go to war, or negotiate. They negotiated for the 49°.

Polk wanted to get California as well as Texas. He sent a delegation to Texas, but they hesitated because this might spark a war with Mexico. Polk sided with the Texans on the Rio Grande as the southern boarder and sent troops near the Nuaces. He sent a delegation to Mexico City, but the government refused to see them as they had a revolution in their hands. Polk decided to move the troops south to the Rio Grande and declare war. The Whigs had to support the troops, or they would be like the unpatriotic Federalists and get screwed.

The Mexican War in 1846 had the Europeans rooting for the superior Mexican numbers. The US however, had more spirit and better equipment. There was Zachery Taylor and Robert E. Lee and Winfield Scott. They worked battles all the way to Mexico City and California. Finally in 1848 there was the treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo which gave the US texas to california but assumed all the debt the Mexico had the US citizens and gave Mexico 15 million dollars. The Senate wanted all of Mexico, but ratified the treaty anyway.

There were war correspondents which created more nationalism in the country. Taylor was also considered cool because he was short and went fighting in a straw hat.

There were still social divisions even with the Missouri Compromise. They thought of slavery as bad. Polk was screwing his party and alienated both sides.

There was the Wilmot Proviso which stated that slavery was prohibited in any territory obtained through negotiation. This was okay, but it posed a problem of slave property transportation. They changed it so that the US has the right to govern any property or territory.

The Whigs ran Taylor without a platform. The Democrates couldn't run their leaders because of sectionalism. They went with Cass. There were the Free-Soil Party which got significant votes. No one got a popular majority, but Taylor won.

There was the califonia gold rush which sent tons of people to california and shut down everything not related to the pursuit of gold. Fast clipperships were built to speed people to the west. Polk wanted to make sure that the Californias didn't establish an independent government.

Conclusion

The population fo the United States grew and people felt the call of Manifest Destiny. They wanted to continue some agraian life and there was the inevitablility of the issue of slavery in the aggressive expansion.

Digression: San Francisco in the Gold Rush

San Francisco grew a lot with the gold rush. It served as a port city for everything and there was high land prices and tons of merchants. There were so many people from all over that it was messed up. The police were inadequent and they formed paralegal police like the Hounds and the vigilantes which did a lot of stuff in secret. The place was segreated along racial lines.

Class 12-9-96: Westward Expansion & Sectional Conflict

The first wave of statehood was during the 1810s and the next wave is during the 1840s. There is the thing about Texas and the Mexicans tried to get people to come to Texas. They rule through the mission system. This starts in the 1820s and continues through the 1830s which allows the Americans to outpopulate the Mexicans. They bring the slaves and the rest of the American culture to the Texan environ. They establish themselves as independent in 1835. They wanted to get annexed, but the American's didn't want to add a slave state.

There was farming in the West Coast. It was a half year trip, and three hundred thousand people went across. The indian attacks were rare and often they helped them.

The party politics saw Harrison die after one month in office. The vice president Tyler takes over and screws stuff up. He vetos everything. The Whigs' plan to establish tariffs, banks, and internal roads was messed up. They didn't want to annex Texas. Tyler is screwed in 1844 and Clay runs against Polk. Polk had little recognition and supported annexation. The expansionists win the enough of the government.

From Compromise to Secession, 1850-1861

They wanted a free soil north while the south wanted to keep slavery. They also thought that slavery cannot exist forever. The Congress was deadlocked on this issue

The Compromise of 1850

There were opposing factions of popular sovreignty, free soil, and Missouri compromise extension. Taylor sought to quickly quiet the matter and allowed New Mexico and California to write constitutions that banned slavery and apply for statehood without being territories. There was a meeting of southern delegates in June 1850.

Clay made a compromise with the admission of free California, division of New Mexico and Utah with a favorable Texan boarder freely able to decide slavery, Texan debt assumption, District of Columbia slave trade ban, and a better fugitive slave law. The compromise was screwy and messed up on both sides. The bill was tied up in committees and Taylor rebuked the plan. Taylor died and the convention of southern states dissolved. Douglas took over for Clay and split the bill which passed in its entierity. This is because a minority of compromisor boosted the sectional votes.

The south wanted still to seceed a little. The Fugitive slave act was detested by the northerners. It could get slaves that escaped decades earlier. The northerners rioted did legal manuvers, and stared at the southern slave people. They saw it as a national problem.

There was a big but mixed reaction to Uncle Tom's Cabin which appeals to the stereotypes and stuff. The election of 1852 saw the Whigs get more Free-Soil stuff while the democrats went south. The Whigs lost badly as the Democrats ran Pierce who supported the 1850 Compromise and wanted popular sovreignty for all.

Class 12-10-96

Western Expansion: Texas, Oregon

James Polk, supporting expansion, runs for president and wins. Manifest Destiny is the idea that America should rule to the Pacific Coast. They think they are enlightened and are somewhat superior and they don't have tyranny. They want to spread democracy and freedom. There is the everlasting argument of white man's burden. The democrats support this becase it promotes farming. There is the annexation of Texas in 1845.

Oregon Territory extended to Canada. In 1846, Polk wanted to get all of the territory and negotiated down. They come to a peaceful resolution, giving the United States what it wants. California is settled by the Gold Rush (1848) and towns like San Francisco grow fast. They essentially skipped the territory stage and applied to be a state.

Mexican War

The annexation of Texas sparks some war stuff. Santa Anna, the president of Mexico, saw any annexation as an act of war. Polk moved troops to the Nuaces then fought to the Rio Grande. The United States started it. They claim in addition to the Republic of Texas, the Rio Grande.

The United States went overland. The first battles are near Texas in the disputed territory. Polk sends Fremont and Kearny to take the New Mexico territory. The Americans are successful with superior weaponry despite their size. Polk sent half of the popular Taylor force and sent him south to take over Mexico.

They establish in 1848 the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo. The Mexico gives Texas, New Mexico, and California. The United States pays $50 million for the land.

Sectional Crisis, 1848-1850

This addition of territory causes debate over slavery in the territories. They propose:

  1. Extension of the Missouri Compromise line 36°30'
  2. Wilmot Proviso (1846), proclaims that the territories acquired would be free soil
  3. Popular Sovereignty, lets the people choose whether to have slavery
  4. Slavery cannot be excluded from any territory

The added territories had Texas as a slave state and New Mexico, Deseret (Utah), California, Oregon, and Washington would probably be free states. The South is now worried.

Compromise of 1850

The issues of the slavery in territories, slave trade in Washington, D.C., and fugitive slave. The South was frustrated with the North's defiance over the fugitive slave laws. The North didn't want to have slaves traded at the capital. The sections were obviously split on the slavery in the territories issue. The compromise presented:

  1. New Mexico and Utah admitted without restrictions on slavery.
  2. California is admitted as a free state.
  3. Texas and New Mexico is set in favor of New Mexico.
  4. Texas admitted as a slave state.
  5. Texan state debt is assumed.
  6. Slave trade ban in Washington, D.C. They allow slavery.
  7. Fugitive Slave Act upgrade.

North gets California and gets some abolition, but they also get New Mexico and Utah which will turn out to be free states. It was a compromise but one was favored a lot more than another. The whole thing as a compromise got messed up. Only when they split it did it pass with completely sectional voting. It's not really a compromise thing.

The Collapse of the Second Party System

The next parties developed as a result of the Whigs waggling the slavery issue. There was the American then Republican Parties. Franklin Pierce was the last president who got popular and electoral majorities in both the North and South.

As there was an economic boon in the 1840s to 1850s, the Whig tariff seemed superfluous. There was an internal split on slavery. This marked the Whig downfall.

In 1854, Stephen Douglass proposed the organization of the now plain states into a territory in the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854). The Midwesterners had hoped for this to expand into the new land and to create a railroad which would increase the region's importance and hopefully mediate between the North and the South. Some Southerners forced Douglass to modify the bill to divide it into the Nebraska and Kansas territories which would supersede the Missouri Compromise. They tabled this as a result of the northerns' anger which polarized the situation which would have otherwise been calm. The bill barely passed.

The anti-slavery people, or Free-Soilers, were big racists. They sought to exclude slavery and even free blacks. They thought that slaves cheapened labor and prevented poor whites from following the American Dream. They thought slavery would spread.

Pierce sought and bought the Gadsden Purchase and it barely passed the Congress only after slashing many miles from the treaty. He tried for Cuba with a filibuster (unofficial military expedition) and the Ostend Manifesto (a US claim of Cuba) but failed all the time. Southern's didn't want expansion and it would ruin the state balence.

An alternative party, the American Party, more likely known as the Know-Nothings, were a radical sect which grabbed New England and some Southern states. They were anti-Catholic and anti-slavery expansion. They failed because of slavery issue (1853-1855).

The Republican Party was anti-slavery in many shades from the upholding of the Missouri Compromise to the complete abolition. Kansas was settled by mostly slave people but it had its mix. Missouri padded slavery votes by sending in mobs that tormented and stuffed boxes. They took arms at Lawrence which sparked the Pottawatomie Creek Massacre which gave Kansas the name Bleeding Kansas. Pierce supported the Southern Kansas government. There was also Senator Sumner of Massachusetts who insulted Southern Representatives and was beaten for it. These two things made the North unite.

The election of 1856 saw the Republicans with Frémont, Democratic Buchanan and American Fillmore. The Americans got a respectable showing. The Republicans got second even as a purely sectional party. The Democrats won because their candidate appealed to the nation.

The Crisis of the Union

Buchanan was a good moderate but got messed up by the Dred Scott case. The Dred Scott case was where a slave moved to Nebraska with his master, thus he was "free." Then his master died, he sued for freedom and lost. His new master was in New York and he sued in federal court. The Supreme court decided that a slave cannot sue for freedom and that the Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional because it takes away property without due process of law. Taney, the chief justice, ruled that way along with the 5 southern justices out of the 6.

The mess up in Kansas with the screwy voting and stuff screwed with Buchanan. He sided with the Lecompton constitution which had failed and passed (1857). He did this to silence the radicals. This made Douglass mad saying it was a trick. Buchanan lost support from the north.

The debates between Lincoln and Douglas addressed no issues. Douglas was mixed in the south as a result of his Lecompton opposition. Lincoln didn't really hit off with the north because he didn't abolish or make equal rights.

John Brown with the Pottawatomie massacre sought to create slave revolt in Virginia and all of the south, but he failed and was stopped by Robert E. Lee and executed for treason in 1859. He was saluted in the North and the south worried about slave revolts and the messed up Republicans.

The south slowly thought that it was time to break off from the union. They would be able to "expand" faster although other states might oppose that. They could govern themselves too.

Class 12-12-96: Impending Crisis, 1854-1860

Party System

The Know-Nothing party is anti-slavery and anti-immigration. They are racist and they want to keep land for whites. They worry about the job situation. There were the Free-Labor and Free Soil and Abolition. They want free soil. Anti-slavery didn't mean abolition. Abolitionists are seen as radicals. Free labor is where no black can enter the area and only whites can labor. They didn't want the expansion of slavery.

The Whig party collapses because their high tariffs was messed up and and they had to address the other issues. Slavery in the territories and the issue of slavery and reformers got messed up. The party was just an opposition to the democrats.

The Democrats try to tie the party with popular sovereignty but there were dissenters. They are split sectionally during the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Even the Northern Democrats were whittled away. This becomes the South's party. They didn't like the repeal of the Missouri Compromise. Under slave debate, there was New Mexico, Utah, Kansas, Oregon, Washington, and Nebraska. It wouldn't be to grow cotton but as laborers. The free economic system would be messed up by cheap slave competition.

Crisis of the 1850s

There is John Brown who attempted to raid Harper's Ferry which polarizes the situation. The south feels that the black republicans are taking over.

There was the Dred Scott case. They prevent any black as a citizen. They also prevent congress from banning slavery. Dred Scott affirms that slavery is invading everywhere. They don't like it naming it slave power.

There is a crack down on the Fugitive Slave law which creates riots and stuff.

Lecompton Constitution also makes Buchanan messed up and differentiates between the north and the south (1857-1858). Missouri pads the vote for the slave states.

Secession

[Not discussed]

The Crisis of Union, Continued

The Election of 1860 had four people running, Lincoln, Bell, Douglass, and Brekinridge. The North's choice was Lincoln because he was more moderate and he only got 39% of the popular, but a majority in the electoral votes. Douglass had to keep all the sections together as a Democrat and a national candidate, because his votes were spread out, he didn't get a state. Some promoted the enforcement of the Dred Scott decision and others tried to really screw slavery.

The south formed the Confederate States of America on 12-20-1860. The elected Jefferson Davis who was a reluctant secessionist. The Upper South didn't join due to economic reasons. This seems to have died in March after the February inauguration.

There was the Cittenden plan which reestablished the union with the Free Soil after the repeal of the personal-liberty laws. It also reinstated the Missouri Compromise and applied it to all territories. Free Soil and Missouri would be constitutional Amendments. This plan was rejected as it went against the founding platform of the Republican party.

Lincoln pledge to get the south back. He wanted to supply Fort Sumter in South Carolina with just provisions but the governor attacked instead (1861). The United States declared an insurrection and called militia troops which caused some of the Upper South States to seceede.

Conclusion

The north saw a wane in popular sovereignty and a gain in free soil. The south paraded the Dred Scott decision, but the conflict teetered for a decade. The Dred Scott case, Kansas and Nebraska as well as John Brown split the people and prevented mutual understanding.

Digression: Charleston in the Secession Crisis, 1860-1861

There was the democratic convention in Charleston which alienated the Blacks and the northern delegates. The Blacks who were free and enslaved were messed by the radicalism that was there. They had to wear badges and prove that they were free.

Class 12-13-96: Southern Perspective and the Secession

The Southerners are arrogant and "King Cotton" controls the world. The north seemed like it wanted to stop slavery and the southerners resented them. South is degraded and hurt in pride and self-respect. The election of Lincoln meant the end of slavery. There was concern about the abolitionist influence in the Republican party. There is the idea of the house divided. Lincoln wanted slavery abolished, but couldn't condone it politically. The containment of slavery was the first step to the abolition. They thought only the extension of slavery was vital to the survival of the institution. The Upper South attempts to get the middle ground on slavery.

South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Alabamba, and Texas seceede initially. West Viriginia separates themselves in 1863. They justify secession by the fear of Lincoln's tolerence of "John Browns" who would destroy south. The North seems to shirk off the Fugitive Slave Law by passing personal liberty laws. Southerners are blocked by riots and southerners beat up abolitionists. The laws are being ignored. The only answer left to prevent the Dred Scott thing from being invoked, you have to get rid of the property clause. The north is streaching it and the south is revolting.

Reforging the Union: Civil War, 1861-1865

A lot of people died and tons of sons became men. Most people thought it would be quick, but it wasn't. The south had to get tons of supplies and draft. The north wanted to just get the seceeding states back, but had to abolish slavery.

Mobilizing for War

Both sides were unprepared. The north had no taxes and had a very small army. The south had no army, navy, tax structure, railroads, or armermants except for two gunpowder factories. Both sides had to implement conscription in 1862 then in 1863. They also had to get supplies. The south allowed army people to buy supplies from farmers at set rates. They also had to make factories to produce ammunition. They took slaves. The south had the 20+ negro rule that exempted big slaveholders. The poor protested as they could not be exempted. The north had its initial wave of people. They were organized locally electing their officers. They later made exams and conscripted as well as allowing the substitution and commutation which was paying someone or paying $300.

The finances of the war needed to be generated as the government expenditures from 2% to 15% of the GDP. Both had to implement taxes. The south made a property tax and the north an income tax. They didn't gain a lot of money. Instead they passed bonds which were sold in the south for specie, and later and in the north for cash. The south didn't pay attention to inflation and got 6000% during the war while the north only had 80%. The north made the paper money legal tender to pay for all debts. The northerners established the National Bank in 1863 that would control the paper money.

Abraham Lincoln was not really well received because of his quirky leadership and his Western mannerism. He however, led in a manner that neutralized his opponents and gathered support. Jefferson Davis made enemies in the south and didn't get the votes to pass measures. The south, founded on protection of state's rights found that they had to institute conscription which was a big infringement.

Lincoln secured the captial by suspending the writ of habeous corpeus that allowed instant arrests. This swayed Maryland and Delaware. Kentucky wanted the north to help drive the south out. Missouri had fighting but never left the union.

Class 12-17-96: The Civil WarTransformation of the South

They had to setup conscription after there were manpower shortages (1862). They signed up for one year only. This was the first time in US history that this was done. It made them serve for three years. Their finances needed to go to paper money and war bonds which caused tons of inflation. The south didn't make their currency legal tender. The south was successful in industrializing to make ammunition. They didn't have food so that "bought" if from the farmers in compliance with the Impressment Act of 1863. They had a taxation like a tithe, paid in goods, which wasn't really sucessful with the transportation. They had 3,000 tax collectors and 1,500 appraisers. They were becoming centralized beyond the northern "despotism" despite having promoted states' rights.

The south and the north allowed people to pay a substitute to go. The south could hire a substitute which was about $5,000. You were exempted if you had more than 20 slaves. The poor people have to fight for the rich slave owners. The rich would avoid it or become officers and staff.

In Battle, 1861-1862

There were new weapons, strategies in the Civil War. The Northern advantages of industry, railroads, and men were canceled out by the large amount of land they had to occupy and control to make the South obey the union. The South just had to defend and didn't have to move tons of supplies around. Rifles changed strageties as the line of infantry that marched fired and bayonetted could be rifled down from a distance. The calvery was also surpassed by the riflemen and used only for surveilance and supply raids. Surprise and higher ground tactics still worked. The north's plan was the Anacoda plan which called for a blockade of the coast and a thrust down the Mississippi. This was not the case.

The Union had to dislodge confederates at Bull Run, failed, then they tried to get the Yorktown Peninsula, succeeded. However, McClellan with his chicken feet, was called back from Richmond front. The confederates tried to get Maryland but they failed at Antietam (Sept 17). The east theater was a stalemate.

The West had Grant in command. The Union got most of the Mississippi by June of 1862 with a two sided attack from Kentucky and New Orleans. The north had the largest navy in the world and blockaded the south. They got control of most ports and killed southern trade. The South revamped a frigate with iron which took out two northern ships. The south also had a submarine which sank due to mechanical problems.

The south sent emmisaries to France and England to get recognition and help in return for cotton, but this "cotton diplomacy" failed. Britain had other cotton from India and Egypt and the Northern Antietam and Emancipation Proclaimation dampened southern efforts.

Emancipation Transforms the War

The question of what the slaves should do came up. Congress passed the Confiscation act which stated that slaves employed in the opposing army and who had ran would become captives of war. Congress revised their Confiscation Act in 1862 to state that any slave who entered the states would be free, because this would create a military advantage for the north. Abraham Lincoln after the battle of Antietam issued the Emancipation Proclamation which said that all slaves in the rebel territories are free.

There was a problem with the influx of newly freed slaves. They setup camps for the freed slaves. They were paid to farm and "leased" out to Union plantations. The Freedman's Bureau dished out 40 acres of confiscated land to the slaves.

There were blacks that were enlisted, some whites objected but they said it would be easier to kill them off. The Black soldiers didn't die as much by battle but by infection. The Blacks didn't have equal pay and were really screwed if captured by the Confederates.

The whites were nervous about a slave revolt with so many men on the lines. The slaves defected and went north. The southerners had a hard time working the slaves. The confederacy eventually tried arming some slaves, but it was too late.

The north in 1863 lost several battles and then Lee decided to invade to scare the north. This invasion saw a meeting at Gettysburg. Lee attacked the flanks and made a charge up on Cemetary Ridge. He got squashed by rifles and the messed up command structure. He retreated. Grant made a round about attack on Vicksburg and then Port Hudson fell. Grant aided his comfade at Chattanooga which allowed the Union to get Tennessee which allowed a thrust into Georgia. The South couldn't attack the north, but the Union still had to defeat Virginia.

Digression: The Sea Island Experiments, 1861-1865

As the Union easily captured the islands off the South Carlolina Coast, which had a lot of Blacks, they sent agents to educate the population and they drafted them and paid them for growing cotton. These blacks still wanted a plot of their own to grow what they want. The land policy wavered for a long while and gave the blacks nothing, but it was a good testing ground for the Union slave policy.

War and Society, North and South

The North and South both had their shortages, but it was the North that won because it could keep supplied. The North industries fluctuated as railroads moved military equiment, cotton mills slowed and shoe makers ate some of the decreased demand. The north made for a transcontinental railroad, had inflation and speculators who invested. Workers suffered from high tarriffs that made price rise without adequet wages.

The south was messed up as the North took the food supply lands and farmers grew cotton. There were food shortages and riots as impressment of food took hold. The North finally allowed trade with the loyal south which was impossible to tell. This fed the army of Virginia and allowed the north to run its cotton mills.

Both governments had dissenters. Davis had to deal with States' rights people. He didn't suspend Habeous Corpus that much. Jefferson used it alot. Democrats disagreed with Jefferson and wanted peace because he was exterminating the south and making things worse. Jefferson arrested opposition but let them go pretty quickly. It was established that military courts cannot try civilians unless the courts are closed.

Women worked a lot as nurses in the medical things of the war. The biggest challenge was to fight disease rather than the battle. There were also prison camps as they didn't exchange prisoners because it would benefit the south. These camps were essentially death camps.

The women did a lot of the work that men did and they promoted the anti-slavery message, but they failed to capitalize on the reform wave and push their sufferage. They fored the National Women's Loyal League with Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton.

The Union Victorious, 1864-1865

Grant was made CINC in 1864. Lincoln was reelected because they had won Atlanta. Grant wanted the multiple fronts thing and he started after Lee and whooped him back into the Richmond fortifications. Then he got Sheridan to pillage the path from their to Washington. Sherman took Atlanta because Davis had replaced Johnston with Hood who took risks and shots at Sherman but failed. The Republicans formed a bogus party called the National Union to split the Democratic vote. They also got a Unionist southerner as vice president. He won because of Atlanta. Sherman was a total warist and destroyed Atlanta, railroads, factories and everything. He didn't fall for the Hood ploy of going back to Tennessee. These allied gains and Sherman's march through South Carolina stunted moral in the northern confederate army which made desertions common as the government fled. Lee was messed up and he fleed the capital area in a hope to join with Johnston's men. Grant pursued and cut them off. The surrender on April 9, 1865 at the town named Appomattox Courthouse, saw the end of the war as resistence died during the next month.

Conclusion

They had a lot of economic as well as populous damage. They had to reconstruct, the role of the south was being rebuilt as the north and its bank and reformed abolitionist stand strove off as one of the industrial nations.

Summer Reading 9-5-96

Both books document the prejudices toward both the American Indians and the Blacks.

Black Like Me

Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee