Thursday, February 27, 1997
Course in Progress Draft
US History AP Notes Semester 2
The Crises of Reconstruction, 1865-1877
- Reconstruction Politics
- Facing Troubles
- 3.5 Million Slaves
- Treated as conquered territory or readmited into the Union
- Political leaders punished?
- Reality: Political battles and reforms instead of exile
and martial law
- Who had the authority to resolve these questions?
- Executive Readmission
- Lincoln Plan (1863)
- presented as the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
- 10 percent take oath of loyalty
- excluding officers, resigned US officials, and blacks
- Wade-Davis Plan (1864)
- half of the voters take the oath
- excludes blacks
- passed Congress
- Ruled by military Governors
- Andrew Johnson, the successor
to Lincoln, merely wanted to get rid of the planter aristocracy.
- Johnson's Plan
- Instituted during Congressional recess
- Oath => pardon with property restored without slaves
- Convention => establishes elections, ratifies the thirteenth
- Excluded - officers, officials, anyone with over $20 thousand
- Most were readmitted, but the new government soon tried to
restrict with black codes.
- No Interacial Marridge
- Restrictions of freedom and civil rights of freedmen
- Bearing arms
- Re-institute semi-slavery system
- Pardons thousands of Confederate Officers and the wealthy
- 10% plan
- High-ranking Confederate officers and leaders again hold public
- Legistlative Readmission
- Blocs: Moderate (biggest), Democrats, Radical
- Motivations and Movement to the Radicals - Backlash against
- Renewal of the Freedman's Bureau
which aided blacks during the war (1865, vetoed as military
- Civil Rights Act of 1866
- gave blacks citizen rights and status, vetoed as favors
blacks and hurts whites, overrode Black Codes
- The Fourteenth Amendment
(1866) - gave the birthright and citizen rights that states couldn't
- They overrode Johnson's vetos and passed four Reconstruction
Acts (1868). Johnson didn't implement
this as CINC (See Tenure of Office Act and Impeachement, in the
next section). The first annuled Presidential Reconstruction and
- The Fifteenth Amendment (1870)
tried to get more blacks to vote. Women also tried to get on the
wagon but were dropped.
- See Enforcement Acts Page 3
- Against the Executive
- Tenure of Office Act
(1867) - prevented removal of Cabinet members without Senatorial
- They tried to impeach him. They got charges when he removed
Stanton from the Secretary of War. The Senators didn't want to
see a Radical take office so they barely didn't impeach Johnson,
but they did succeed in screwing him enough to prevent reelection.
- Reconstruction Governments
- New Electorate
- Carpet baggers - northerns
who came for power and riches
- Scalawags - poor southerners
who sought to benefit from the plight
- Gave freedmen the right to vote and participate in government
- Union League - league that
lead the black political scene
- served in all legislators, a couple in the Senate - mainly
formerly free blacks
- none served as governor, only South Carolina had a legislative
- Republican controlled for upto ten years
- all positions elected
- public works - roads, welfare, schools, loans
- property tax
- Thomas Nast
- a political cartoonist
- created the donkey and the elephant
- drew during the civil war and reconstruction
- insult legislator and constitutions
- Ku Klux Klan - became violent,
rising from anti-bellum slave patrols
- attacked Union League
- scared juries and witnesses
- Reponse to the Klan
- Enforcement Act
(1870) - protects black voters
- Second Enforcement Act -
federal supervision of elections
- Third Enforcement Act (1871) -
suspend writ of habeas corpus and uses federal troops.
- Impact of Emancipation
- Social Institutions
- Schools, Churches, Universities
- Segregation assumed - integrated churchs went segregated
- Two Classes - formerly free, freedmen
- Moved to urban area
- Reunification - families sought to find each other (Freedman's
- sometimes failed by death or remarriage
- Labor - women sought to make a home, reducing field hands
- Making a living
- Homesteads failed - not enough resources
- urban labor is hard to get
- independent black farms failed - not enough resources, whites
unwilling to sell land
- Wages - paied one-eighth of the crop to the workers; disliked
- Sharecropping - farms the
land, pays an annual "tax"; whites soon joined these
- Crop-Lien Credit
- backed by slaves
- now by lien - claim on crop
- took advantage of illiterate and charged 50% interest
- caused debt and prevented improvements and depleted land
- tenant farmers hardest hit
- Digression: A Georgia Plantation
- Barrow Plantation - David Crenshaw Barrow, Jr. (And father)
- Senator, Judge, Mathmatics Professor, Farmer
- Children moved away
- Divided into two squads - result: rebellion, but satisfactory
- smaller groups - result: messed up equipment
- Separated into smaller farms
- made a church
- sold a mule on credit
- had a rent of 500 lbs of cotton
- New Concerns in the North
- Popular Sentiment
- Less Southern Question
- radical, but quiet
- not a good politician
- appointed corrupt friends
- Settled with England for Confederate raiders
- Added Alaska for $7.2 Million (1867)
- Annexed Santo Domingo (current day Haiti-Dominican Republic)
- Disliked Spoils, Grantism (corruption)
- Democrats came back.
- Panic of 1873
- Jay Cooke, banker, lent money and bonds for Union Pacific
which spent too much in 1873, causing his bank then the stock
market to fail.
- Greenbacks weren't backed by gold and so this was messed up.
- They tried to wipe out, then restore the silver standard.
There were the free-silver people (democrats) and the Greenback
people and the gold people.
- They nullified the Supplemental Freedmen's Bureau acts because
they barred military courts.
- They killed the 14th amendment by saying that it only protected
nationally given rights.
- They messed up the Enforcement Act for not citing exactly
the wording in the 15th amendment.
- End of Reconstruction
- Military withdrawal
- Sympathy for state's rights
- Lack of enforcement
- Reconstruction Abandoned
- Democrats again started to get southern states
- The White League tried to
get rid of black voters and Republicans.
- Sharecropping clauses
- Public voting
- Once elected, they reversed changes.
- Blacks moved to Kansas
- Election of 1876
- Republicans - Hayes
- Democrats -Tilden
- Fraudulent changing of the election by both parties
- They made a compromise where the south got aid for railroads
and internal works as long as they elected Hayes and fairly treated
- They didn't fulfill their promises
- End of
- southern question
- a democratic experiment
- because of lack of enforcement
- produced dead weight 14th and 15th amendments
- without the slavery question, concentrated on the economy
- Was Reconstruction a failure?
South came back to power - Passed Amendments
Reunification over civil rights Injustices of slavery system were
Lack of Enforcement Reunification
Blacks were still restricted Citizenship
Supreme Court nullified the new Sharecropping allowed more autonomy
Confederates weren't punished Consolidation of the urban Black
Grant administration and
Sectional conflicts still existed
Failure to establish land reform
Table 1: Evaluation of Reconstruction
Ethnic Notions -- Marlon Riggs
- Power of Culture
- Changing racial sterotypes during the Civil War and Reconstruction
- Legacies of racial stereotypes
- Stereotypic images lasted even to 1940.
- Makes people believe that the people are like them.
- Pre Civil War
- "Sambo," a happy lazy irresponsible person, were
- "Jim Crow," a dance, was performed by white people.
They banded together to form minstrels. This evolved to the sambo.
- Allowed them to "justify" slavery as happy.
- "Zip Coon," a northern free black, said that free
blacks were screwy.
- "Mammy," a fat servant in the southern home, always
happy, protective, and docile to the whites. She is the controller
rather than the patriarchial standard. It makes the society seem
crappy because the males suck and she doesn't have sexual appeal.
- Brut Negros were portrayed as pursuing white virgins and disruptive
as free blacks. This justified violence.
- Uncle Ned, the freed slave, is calm, peaceful, and good.
- Children were savage and unkept.
- Blacks too an Irish name and darkened his face and widened
the mouth to do the movies and minstrals. They saw this as a gateway
- The Coon came back as blacks moved to cities and north.
- WWI: Race riots; armed services placed them in servant roles.
- Burt Williams, a famous black face artist
- Class Review
- Previously seen that blacks caused the failure of the Reconstruction.
- All aspects of society, even the President was affected by
- Legacies in the North
- Civil Rights Reform
- Massachusetts (1865) - prohibits segregation.
- Iowa and Michigan integrate education.
- Cities also do some desegregation.
- Economic Changes
- Homestead Act (1862)
- Railroad Act (1863)
- Northerners uses the absence of the South to pass the legislation.
- National banking structure
- Increases tariffs
- Government pumps money into the economy
- Meat Packing
- Cotton mills
- Large businesses benefit from wartime spending
- Grant Administratoin
- A long lasting partnership between the Republicans and the
- elaborate patronage system
- bribery and corruption
- "Gilded Age" (1870-1900)
- The Labor Question & Depression of 1873
- First great crisis of industrial captalism
- Lasted for 5 years
- Later depressions are 1893, 1929
- Half of railroads go bankrupt.
- Large strikes. (1876 Railroad Strike)
- Reconstruction dies here. Labor issue comes out.
- The Frontier West
- Native Americans and the Frontier
- West, the Frontier
- People moved West with California and all.
- Indians were moved aside
- European diseases still were spreading
- Frontiersmen didn't pay respect to the "savages."
- Plains Indians
- had the relocated Five Civilized Tribes
- hunted buffalo, rice, maple-sugar
- maintaied extended families
- used all the buffalo parts
- The skins were popular coats and belts for industry and so
the whites and other indians hunted the buffalo to endangerment.
- indians were ruined
- Transformation of Indian Life
- Formation of smaller reservations, no more nomadic life, agriculture
- Aid from US, failed, return to old homes, army battles
- Bozeman Trail - leading
to gold fields in Montana, halted (1867) for peace with the indians
- US always had the military card in hand, formed the Board
of Indian Commisioners (1869)
- appointed Christian reservation agents
- Indians didn't like the treaties, violence erupted
- Colonel George Armstrong Custer
- Sioux tribes of Wyoming, Montana, Dakotas - had Treaty
of Fort Laramie (1868) but didn't
like it, didn't sign it, and or didn't fight the Powder River
War for it.
- Black Hills SD to monitor Sioux tribes (1874) and establish
a fort (really to find gold)
- Custer mentions gold and people come. The US gives the tribes
a reservation ultimatum and Custer recklessly attacks, losing
everything at Little Bighorn (1876)
- The lack of buffalo prevented the tribes from surviving as
the US destroyed tribal supplies during winter
- "Saving" the Indians
- made schools like Carlisle (1879) which destroyed all Indian
- They tried to reduce the abhored violence by destroying the
- Called for break up of reservations (Dawes Severality Act,
1887) which gave speculators more stuff
- Ghost Dance and the End of Resistence
- They tried to revive their culture with the Ghost Dance
- Agents got scared and tried to arrest Sitting Bull, violence
- Sioux were killed off at Wounded Knee, only Marguerite, Lost
Bird, was left alive
- Other tribes like the Navajo were more successful in resverations
- Settling the West
- Transcontinental Railroad
- Completed May 10, 1869
- Made the journey from east to west easier
- Started by Pacific Railroad Act
(July 1, 1862)
- The companies got land and sold it cheap.
- Homestead Act (1862)
- It gave free land if improved, used for five years and cultivated.
($10 registration fee)
- Immigrants grabbed it if they had the money to move.
- They amended these things for different conditions like 160
more acres if 40 acres are planted with trees and 640 total acres
if a part is irrigated in 3 years.
- Machinery encouraged farming and demand for wheat grew as
a white flour grinder was invented.
- There were still debt and dryness problems
- To Statehood
- Women and men were exposed to harsh farm work and weather.
- Church and schools bonded the community and they had to work
- They made conservative constitutions, established elections
and applied for statehood. They had women's sufferage.
- They formed the Grange which dealt
with the social aspect of failing farms and isolation.
- They didn't like railroads' unfair pricing, so they passed
the Grangers laws (1874) which
were upheld by the Supreme Court. They modified this to exclude
- The Grangers lost their clout and sunk out of existance. Prices
fell across the board so it wasn't that bad.
- During the 1850s and 60s, Anglos distrusted Spaniards and
raided each other.
- The Americans also overran the Spaniard operations.
- Escalation of the conflict happened despite compromisers.
There were riots in the 1890s.
- Exploiting the West
- Booming Economy
- Industries and fortunes in steel and railroads were made.
- Large mining companies got the gold out of California. People
moved west as almost every state found gold.
- Most of the towns sprouted quickly and corruptly. Vigilantes
did the justice.
- Miners earned a lot but had occupational hazards and the towns
were abandoned quickly.
- less indians
- railroad promotion
- Very profitable but market dependent
- Most domestic shops fell through and foreign investment started
- Herders were young males that stayed for a year or two
- There was violence but the novels exaggerated
- More railroads and enclosure brought great drives down
- Railroads lowered land prices after the Panic of 1873.
This encouraged speculation which lead to wheat overproduction.
- They grabbed Oklahoma, the earliest reservation for the Five
Civilized Tribes who sided with the Confederacy. (1889)
- The West of Life and Legend
- Federick Jackson Turner declared the frontier gone. This meant
now to evaluate what had happened. (1893)
- There was a free spirit deal like Huck Finn and Daniel Boone.
(Started Wild West Shows)
- It was an escape and a treasure chest with moral dilemmas
- It lacked the complexities of investment and large-scale exploitation.
- They had reports on the differing land forms and the necessity
to change water habits to fit the area.
- General Washburn surveyed Yellowstone National Park
and instead of claiming for Northern Pacific Railroad, petitioned
Congress to preserve it (1872).
- There were people like Muir, Powell and Marsh who sought to
preserve the nature.
- There were the frontier myths which glorified the West.
- The opposing view is the episode of socioeconomic political
history of America.
- There was the analysis that the frontier was always the driving
force for America.
- Modern day - Turner was short sighted because of the West
as a significant power.
- Federal Indian Policy
- Four Stages During the 1800s
- Removal to West of the Mississippi - pre-Civil War
- Policy of concentration - allows settling around trails -
- Reservation Policy - 1860-1870s
- Assimilation - 1880s-
- Failed because they had their own culture. They were tricked
and cajoled. They didn't have farming experience.
- Incorporation of the American West,
- It becomes integrated into the greater United States, economically,
- Mineral Rushes, 1849-1880
- Gold Rush 1849 - California
- Colorodo and Nevada - 1850s
- Montana and Wyoming - 1860s
- South Dakota - 1870s
- Cycle of mineral rushes
- mining companies and investors have the most profit - invested
by British Companies
- placer mining - get it from the surface, miners profit
- Also do towns, saloon, stores, etc.
- Large companies and stuff make the West look like the east.
- Conquest and Removal of Indians
- Continous Warfare after Civil War
- 1890 Wounded Knee, end of Indian
- 1869 Bureau of Indian Affairs
- Dawes Act
- Transcontinental Railroad
- Telegraph lines coordinate Railroads
and enable communication
- Railroad Act of 1862 started
the western railroads. The Railroads got the land right next to
- Completed 1869
- Chinese built from the West and the Irish in the East
- Migrants and Settlers
- 1862 - Homestead Act - gives
160-acre land plots if lived for five years and improved
- Railroads and speculators bought most of it
- Additional land was granted for the Timber Culture Act
- Irrigation on the dry land
- Insect Pests
- Fencing - led to barbed wire
- Started the Grange political movement
- organization of farmers
- cut out middlemen, merchants (high interest) - grain processing
people - these were monopolies
- fought railroads - short haul price hike - these were monopolies
- starts the populism movement
- commercial farming is triumphing over subsistence (world wide
market for food) - overproduction occurs (1880s) reduces prices
and economic stress
- The Rise of Industrial America
- gave lights
- dazzled people
- transformed homes
- The Character of Industrial Change
- Lower Prices
- Massive production
- Ruthless Competition
- High Cost
- Required communication and coordination
- Created telegraph
- Elaborate structures, accounting
- Jay Gould
- Reorganized Railroads 1860-1870
- Consolidated and standardized them
- Themselves - set equipment specs and time zones
- Killed other companies by making a parallel track and inflating
- Interstate Commerce Commission
(ICC, 1887) prohibited pooling and rebates
and short haul inflated rates.
- Screwed by the Supreme Court
- Helped later by the Hepburn Act 1906
- Corrupt, and larger than governments
- Andrew Carnegie
- Worked as a bobbin boy while studying accounting
- Western Union telegraph operator
- Assistant to Pennsylvania Railroad
- Climbed the ranks
- 1870s - built own steel mill
- Cost watching
- vertical integration
- controlling more of the product from materials to manufactured
- Philathropic activities
- All industries felt this and became more efficient
- John D. Rockefeller made
- He made tanker cars and pipelines for transportation.
- He did vertical integration by controlling extraction, refining,
transportation and horizontal by pools and
later trusts. (Trusts are a framing company
that forces certain rates and production. Pools are informal agreements
that dictate quotas and rates.)
- He expanded to other continents.
- Other industries copied them.
- Congress passed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
in 1890 to stamp out these "restraints of trade."
This was killed by the courts
- Some were not seen by consumers like Bessemer process, refrigeration
shipping and manufacturing machines
- Others like the light bulb and telephone were seen. Thomas
A. Edison made the light bulb
and stock ticker and phonograph.
- There were patent infringement cases which drained Edison
who merged with anothe company to make GE. Westinghouse made a
better electricity system. They united and shared patents to get
- Edison made the coporate laboratory
- Producing so much stuff, and competitng, companies started
advertisng with images and names like Quaker Oats. They also made
scientific and medical claims like Ivory Soap's 99.44% pure.
- Small firms were now dead and big business ruled. They polluted
and stuff so it was messy, but now the US was top dog, despite
crummy labor pay.
- Too wrapped in the Lost Cause (slavery)
- Destruction of credit system and Reconstruction restrictions
- Cash crops were grown to stop debt
- Silver demonization - shortage of funds
- New Hopes
- The New South Creed was
- They produced iron from natureally occuring ore.
- Labor was segregated like textiles, white, and iron, black.
- On the piedmont, new mills rose in the countryside.
- Railroads were built rapidly.
- Cotton mills brought profit to the rich.
- They got northerners to get the equipment and maintain it
and cheap southern labor.
- The workers were whole families that grew dependent on the
company church, school, store, and credit.
- This industrialization was small scale and relied on northern
funds and technology.
- Industrial Work and the Work Force
- Development of labor
- Started in 1840s as individual workers bound by social ties
- 1850s, team working
- 1880s mechanization
- employees were subcontracted so the employer wouldn't have
to deal with the hiring and managing
- They earned 84 cents a day (compared to $1 for northerner
and $3 for skilled workers)
- Accidents and work conditions were terrible
- There was coal dust and riding the machine belt to the ceiling
hazards with no compensation for death or injury
- Immigrants worked hard to make money. Had to adjust to the
bells and regulated work schedule
- They worked domestically but hated the "servant aspect".
- They thought of women as temporary and cheaper.
- They moved later into secretarial positions (1890s).
- Social Images
- They promoted hard work and self-discipline (especially with
the dime novels)
- They couldn't better themselves because of the meager existance
- They couldn't rise to managerial positions, they only hoped
to become respectable and have a house.
- The bottom rungs stayed there while the rich got richer.
- Labor Unions and Industrial Conflict
- Forming Unions
- Internal racial divisions
- wasn't as popular
- Needed power
- cross trade lines
- National Labor Union
(1866, NLU) - strike failed
- Knights of Labor (1869)
- grew slowly
- tried to limit immigration (esp. Chinese in the west)
- the membership wanted more immediate wages
- Wabash strike 1885, success
- strength declined
- American Federation of Labor
- formed from Knights of Labor
- federation of trade unions
- 1877 railroad strike turned violent and destroyed buildings,
freezing the nation's transportation
- Haymarket Square (1886)
- threw bomb killed 7 police, police shot 4, public opposed such
gatherings (German immigrants)
- 1893 Pullman Palace Car Company
- strike paralyzed all rail traffic
- mail disrupted (supervisors refused to pull Pullman cars)
- restraint of trade determined
- big business now had the legal precedent that unions were
- Alternatives ?
- "The market will regulate itself"
- Social Darwinism
- Regulate business and defend the masses
- Humans can control Darwinism
- Protect society and natural resources
- Tax the unearned (invested) money to fund social welfare
- Socialism, state run economy - Bellamy
- Marxism not popular with the revolution as a key difference
- Digression: Homestead: The Town and
the Mill, 1870-1907
- First farms
- Glass mill (1878)
- Steel mill
- later part of Carnegie's empire
- used the river as transportation
- High smoke stacks
- Loud blasts from the Bessemer converters
- Hot sparks in the furnace, loud noises in the rolling and
- accident prone (65 per month)
- Bad air
- Continuous Operation
- Still grew
- Early Visions
- Jefferson - warn of industrialization
- Hamilton - industrialization key to national glory
- Industrial America
- Large corporation, "cheap" workers - Jefferson's
cost of industrialization
- Business leaders had "phony" benefactions to prevent
- Americans less aware of the industrial changes. (Later, in
the Progressive Era, more effort is spent on social aspects of
- Hofstadter: The Spoilsmen: An Age
- Gilded Age - for entreprenuer without restraint, wasteful
- Businessmen did what was right through less legal means
- Started from lower ranks of society
- Pride in that we developed the country
- Justified by Darwin's Theory & Herbert Spencer's Philosophy
- They felt at home even without philathropy
- Parties sprouted on patronage
- Republicans tied to the capitalists
- Crédit Mobilier - bribery condemned by Congress but
sympathized by press
- Lack of the Morality of Politicians as visioned by the Constitution
- Even Presidents were corrupt
- Every organization was a machine
- Some were too corrupt and couldn't be presidentified, e.g.
House Speaker Blaine
- Reform ?
- People weren't movtivated to induce reform
- There was the Civil Service, Tarriff, and Minority Representation.
- Cleveland spawned the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman
Anti-Trust Act which were throughlt thrashed by the Courts
- Minorities were united always under the two party system
- Cleveland had to work himself at 16.
- Not really outstanding but was thrust into the forefront.
- Supported by the Republicans even though Democrat
- He vetoed bribed bills
- Cleveland believed in laissez-faire
- He resisted strong popular thinking
Industrial Revolution, 1870-1900
- Immigration - Pictoral Source - (1879)
- Xenophobia with the Chinese
- Social Darwinism - Some
races are naturally inferior
- Chinese Exclusion Act
- 100,000 Chinese in the West
- Labor Unions
- Came amongst the 1870 depression
- Second Industrial Revolution, 1870-1900
- US Becomes a World Power
- Transformation from 1870 to 1920 from Agriculture to industrial
- Most productive nation
- Crediter nation where we loan people money
- Big Business
- Advanced Technology
- Integration of Technology
- Mass Production
- "Robber Barons"
- Increaased competition
- Monopolies of Industries
- Social Transformation
- Rich & Poor Gap
- Middle Class
- Transportation inad interal development
- Telegraph (1837)
- Telephone (1837)
- Electricity (Light Bulb, 1876)
- Unionization & Reform & Radical Movements
- Labor Unions
- Socialist movement
- Women's movement
- Populist movement - Farmer's protest
- Progressive movement
- Immigration - Second Wave of Immigrants
- Modern Corporation and Monopolies
- Modern Corporation
- Stock Companies
- large-scale operations - large pools of capital
- managerial hierarchies
- increasingly impersonal, effecient
- utilization of technology
- Railroads are the first modern corporation
- Few companies dominate an industry
- vertical integration - control
all of manufacturing process, no middlemen, e.g. Carngie steel,
Armour & Swift (meat packing)
- horizontal integration
- eliminating competition, e.g. Rockefeller, trusts and mergers
- Labor Movements
- National Labor Union
- First national organization
- Founded by William Sylvis
- Knights of Labor (1879-1887)
- Started as masonic organization
- Sudden growth in 1886 due to successful strikes in 1885
- Includes all "producers." This means skilled, unskilled
laborers, women, and minorities.
- Loosely organized
- Terence Powderly - most
- Declines with the Haymarket Strike & Riot
- bomb thrown, police retaliate, media casts laborers as bad
- Laborers have turned to violence
- First Red Scare - anarchists jailed
- American Federation of Labor
- Tried to be more restricted
- Federation of smaller skilled labor unions - male, white,
- Cautious and less radical - just wages and working hours
- Headed by Samuel Gompers
- Skilled workers would have "the stint" where they
would together decide on the workload for the day.
- [Congress of Industrial Oraganizations (CIO, 1935-) - merged
later in 1955 to make the AFL-CIO]
- Why were labor unions and strikes generally unsuccessfull
in the late 19th century?
- conflict between skilled and unskilled laborers
- Ethnic tension
- low degree of organization
- persecution of organizers
- bad middle class and public opinion
- charge of violence and anarchy
- federal injunctions
- state militia
- yellow dog contracts - prevented joining unions
- How did Social Darwinism justify the changing political and
economic environment of the late 19th century?
- Races are inferior
- Herbert Spencer promoted
- Justifies immigrant labor
- Supported by Big Business and Middle Class
- Politcians tried to domiate a region and survive
- Carnegie uses it to do stuff - will eventually benefit
- Do whatever to get ahead
- How did immigration and industrialization transform the American
city in the late 19th century?
- early 19th century was the walking city where the rich lived
in the center - business ditrict
- business districts became industrial centers
- rapid population explosion
- new transportation systems
- change in residential pattes: tenement houses and ghettos
in center, development of suburbs
- The Transformation of Urban America
- Tenaments were crowded, diseased, good street life
- Urban flood of immigrants and diversity
- Urban Expansion
- The New Urban World
- Mass transit tried to cope with the hords of people
- Large centers for commerce banking and trade sprung while
smaller cities made single industrial products
- The beginings of late night life appeared.
- A Revolution in Transportation
- Inner cities were orginially for the rich.
- As stage coaches and horse cars took hold, the rich moved
out and the poor moved in. They had the dung problem.
- They made steam powered cars and eventually used the cable
car then the street car powered by overhead electric cables
- They were centered at the city downtown without many other
transfers so business boomed
- A Mobile Population
- They moved a lot to get more space and air.
- The population of a city changed three or four times during
- The middle class wanted to be safe and comfortable in the
- Migrants and Immigrants
- There were more immigrants from Eastern Europe and Southern
- Steamboats aided transatlantic travel.
- They all wanted to better their situation
- Men came first to get a job
- The voyage was bad and customs inspected for diseases
- They established Ellis Island
(1892) to process immigrants
- Adjusting to an Urban Society
- The ethnic groups subdivided into their region of origin
- The tenaments had a central hall and bathroom with rooms,
they would house about 500 people a piece.
- This density allowed them to keep their language, food, and
- The immigrants' children would slowly reject their ancestry
- Large groups (Gmernas, Poles, Jews) setup stuff to help their
kind, but this made it harder for smaller groups.
- Some just came to earn money then leave
- Americans detested this blooming population
- Slums and Ghettos
- These developed when it got too crowded. Later politics or
neighbors would prevent people from moving away
- They didn't really have running water bathrooms so they used
- Diseases spread quickly
- Factories and coal dust blacked whole regions
- Blacks were worse off
- Racial violence
- Fashionalbe Avenues and Suburbs
- They made nice suburbs where the rail cars went by
- Each district had its own feel
- Artisans moved out
- These contrasts were big
- The Urban Challange
- They blamed "boss" politics and the immigrants for
- Policing the City
- They had con artists and violence which was documented in
the novel Ragged Dick by Horatio Alger (1868).
- They made police forces separate
from military (1853)
- prevent crime
- cleaned streets
- inspected boilers
- ran homeless aid
- Investigations showed that police were corrupt.
- Legislators also tried to stop crime with laws regulating
- Governing the City
- more taxes, mass transit, fire and police
- politicians fought for these programs
- states limited corruption in cities
- "bosses" helped a faction stay in power
- Cox, George B. of Cincinnati
was actually pretty good
- They helped settle disputes and ran everything to its cause,
aiding friends and killing enemies
- There were people who just clawed to power and got it
- They were ruthless and entangled welfare with corrupt politics
- emphasized grass roots politics
- Tammany Hall - New York
- Tweed, William Marcy
ran it and pumped city debt and was jailed (1873)
- Battling Poverty
- They tried to get rid of dirty immigrant habits
- visitation and domatories, workshops, and reading rooms tried
to aide them
- Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA,
1851) tried to provide recreation, a safe place, and a safety
- Immigrants sometimes didn't like the moralistic supervision
- New Approaches to Social Work
- YMCA had pretty much failed
- they made the Salvation Army
(1865) to aide people and setup soup kitchens and nurseries
- New York Charity Organization Society (COS, 1882) did the
- These charities tended to control the poor more than help
- The Moral Purity Campaign
- New York Society for the Suppression of Vice
(1872) by Comstock, Anthony
- shut down all lottery and gambling
- They attacked the New York Art Students' League and took nude
- Senator Lexow made an investigation and the Society swamped
it with evidence
- New city mayor elected and enforced regulations
- Died down
- The Social Gospel
- The ministers started to also blame the rich
- They helped out
- The notion of victimized poor
- They tried to unite and help the poor and recognize capitalism
- The Settlement-House Movement
- They moved to the slums to understand
- There was no "formula" for helping the poor
- She made programs and tried to get political cooperation
- These houses bred a new leadership for the Progressive
- They didn't bridge the rich and poor gap
- Reshaping the Urban Environment
- An Alternate to Reform
- street, sewer, and water systems
- leveling and landfilling
- Libraries, theaters and symphonies
- Parks and Public Spaces
- Large spaces and streets
- centralized commercial center
- Olmsted made Central Park in New York
- Boston's Back Bay (1857)
- Filled in 580 acres
- regulated buildings
- had cultural attractions
- affluent Bostonians settled here
- schools and universities came
- Rebuilding Chicago
- During the 1840s, they had grew 10 fold.
- They made everyone rebuild on higher ground.
- 1871 - fire - rebuilding was required to be fire proof, thus
the sky scraper, a steel framed building
- They tried to beautify the downtown districts so that "all
would benefit," but the poor slums got nothing
- Toward a Metropolitan America
- They had to improve city services which supplanted the ward
- sewers were bad, Chicago made a sanitary district (1889) and
centralized their sewers
- cities gained unincorporated land and gobbled neighboring
- This gained suburban power and less immigrant troubles
- cities expanded
- people still lived on farms
- cities had a power stuggle
- immigrants were assimilated
- they tried to create more natural surroundings
- middle classes tried to "help" the immigrants
- bosses gained power
- cities tried to provide better services
- slowly government began to play a role
- Daily Life, Popular Culture, and the
- Majority of Americans
- Couldn't enjoy cheap products
- Rich - Comfortable
- Everyday Life in Flux
- Rearrangement of the social classes was natural from the industrialization
- Rising Standards of Living
- Shirts were more availible
- New pre-prepared foods
- Health products spread
- Easier housekeeping
- Bringing New Commodities to Rural and Small-Town America
- Old: had one pricey merchant
- New 1860: got the Sears and Montgomery Ward catalogs
- Catalogs gave taste of middle class and lessons on style
- Spurred the bargain savings Woolworth stores
- A Shifting Class Structure
- Earlier: workers and craftsmen did stuff together
- Automated machines made the workers leave and the cheap immigrants
enter, creating a craftsmen/worker rift
- Middle classes tried to get more spending power and bought
- The rich spend oodles of money on club memberships and "cottages"
- The Changing Family
- Technology, money, and social class determined life expentancy
and birth rate
- Nuclear families with boarders were common
- Family sizes went down with increasing incomes
- Life Expentancy went up
- Working Class Family Life
- The southern blacks relied on extended families for support
- Whole families worked the land in rural America
- Whole families worked in the urban factories to survive and
pool resources to buy houses and stuff
- Middle-Class Society and Culture
- Upper classes used the Victorian/Darwinist morals to justify
- Manners and Morals
- Morals and hard work were the "paths to success"
- Manners at the dinner table were important
- Culture like museums
- The Cult of Domesticity
- Women were supposed to make the homes a better place
- They spent time decorating it
- Department Stores and Hotels
- Material possessions spurred on department stores for the
middle to upper classes
- Wide selection - new merchandise
- Low prices - End of Season Sale, Price wars
- Lavish and tons of service
- Became social club, entertainment, adventure
- The Transformation of Higher Education
- They were designed for future businessmen
- Started football without protective gear, thought as building
- Doctors got more training in wider areas
- Improved on the 1800s' colleges with more areas of study
- Working Class Leisure in the Immigrant
- Leisure was a taboo in colonial America, but with the new
industrial age, leisure had to find wholesome activities to forget
- The Streets, the Sloon, and the Boxing Match
- Street life
- Ethnic hangouts like singing and gyms
- Male saloons
- Boxing, first barefist then elitized
- The Rise of Professional Sports
- Baseball was adapted from a child's sport
- Professional teams sprouted in 1869 and a league in 1876
- It attracted crowds and people kept up on it with blackboards
- Boxing and Horse racing gained popularity especially with
- Vaudeville, Amusement Parks, and Dance Halls
- Vaudeville evolved from the
- Coney Island was one of the first amusment parks (1870s)
- Single, young, working women went to dances and balls
- Evolved from the non-Victorian, carefree black music
- Shunned by Victorian middle class but accepted as expression
by the workers
- Felt more natural
- Digression: New Orelans in the 1890s
- Enjoyed black freedom
- Occupied by the North, resentment
- Irish, more tension
- Very risque bars, dance halls, spicy food
- Blacks got cheap instruments and just played
- Created the Jazz movement
- 1897, Storyville district with all the raunchy stuff hires
- White Americans accepted this music but kept their prejudices
- Cultures in Conflict
- Too much reform and women's complaints caused middle class
- The Genteel Tradition and Its Critics
- E. L. Godkin tried to make Victorian literarure with the Atlantic
- Mark Twain revolted and started Cosmopolitan which
cut subscription rates but added ads.
- They tried to broaden American literature.
- Twain sold his books like a true salesmen.
- It caused middle class America to look at what was happening
- Modernism in Architecture and Painting
- Architects designed buildings that functioned and blended
with the environment
- Painters wanted nude models and dreamed and superrealized
- Victorians had lost touch with the world
- From Victorian Lady to New Woman
- Established Woman's Chrustian Temperance Union
- Tried to get vote and got involved in local affairs
- Colleges admitted more women to prepare them for mariage
- Educated also in agressive power struggle
- Tried to exercise more, bicycle
- Men ridiculed these advances
- Women liked the advances but thought of the home as first
- Public Education as an Arena of Class Conflict
- They thought of it as a way of indoctrinating the poor
- Harris, William Torrey
wanted all kids to attend, and by 1900 31 states required
- Schools were drilling and used corporal punishment
- Most people pulled them out after they knew how to read
- The East had elite college prep schools
- Catholics objected to federal aid to the mainly protestant
- The system was still diverse
- The Middle Class Assault on Working Class Culture
- The upper classes didn't like the dance halls or amusement
- Upper classes used the parks but prevented the workers from
- Local referendums saw class warfare
- Conclusion & Society and Culture,
- Immigrants won the culture war.
- Continues a trend from the market economy
- Clearer class distinctions
- Distinct leisure activities
- Split between the skilled and unskilled working class
- Status is increasingly defined by possessions and lifestyle
- Emerging methods of selling like catalogs and department stores
- Victorian ethics and morals
- high culture, strict manners, classical arts
- after 1900, crumbles
- Lower classes - popular culture
- vaudeville - hodgepodge of attractions, evolved from minstrels,
animal tricks and circus stuff
- professional sports
- Higher education - includes women's colleges
- Changing family structures and size - decreases in size, nuclear
families, increasing cost of children
- saloon - relaxing, political discussion
- Politics and Expansion in an Industrial
- Political Conventions were huge.
- People participated a lot and there were songs and slogans
- Social consequences were dealt locally and the national government
gave spoils out
- Party Rivalries, Agrarian Stirrings,
and Civil-Service Reform
- They moved government jobs to merit and they grappled with
the money question
- Patterns of Party Strength
- Parties had their strongholds
- Republicans - Northeast and the GAR, Grand Army of the Republic
- Democrats - The south and border states
- Voters were male and partially were socially in the parties,
women didn't vote and the blacks were losing their votes in the
- The Stakes of Politics
- They slammed the other people as racists and rebels or other
- They neglected major issues and the president sucked because
of the Johnson attempted impeachment and the Grant Hayes electon.
- People went the the state legislators
- Cities and States battled for power
- Factions tried to get the upper hand
- Hayes in the White House
- He supported reforms and restored honor to the office
- Greenbacks and Silver
- There were too many pre-civil war banks
- Federal money was cool because it was gold
- People wanted more greenbacks and silver to pay off debts
- Coinage Act of 1873 stopped
silver because it was getting rare
- Bland-Allison Act of
1878 forced the minting of silver (not circulation
- Sherman Silver Purchase Act
of 1890 continued purchasing silver and circulation, but silver
- The Spoils System
- People got offices because of their political connections
- crappy guys got into office and could hold it with their support
- Upper classes attacked this practice and Hayes fired two executives
- Civil-Service Reform
- The Republicans ran Garfield, a reformer, for president with
Arthur, a spoils guy, for VP.
- Garfield edged out and won, and some spoils guys fell on their
faces trying to get an edge
- Garfield was assasinated and Arthur took over (Arthur was
- Spurned the Pendelton Act 1883
which setup a civil service commision and established merit government
- Politics of Privilege, Politics of
- They had tons of stuff against them and the south screwed
the blacks rights
- The Election of 1884: Cleveland Victorious
- Republicans had Blaine which was the spoils system guy
- Cleveland had to get Tammany Hall, but he scraped without
it and won
- Cleveland's First Term
- supported laissez-faire
- dropped tariffs
- killed pork-barrel projects (money funnelers)
- killed government surplus
- Killed fraund in veteran disabilities
- The Election of 1888
- Harrison ran for the Republicans
- portrayed Cleveland as a no-tariff person
- they also tricked the British, hated in the US, into supporting
- Harrison won by states
- Raised tarriffs and spoiled everyone
- 1890, voters change House control to Democrats
- Turmoil in Rural America
- The lower crop prices pushed farmers into debt
- South - crop-lien
- Great Plains - railroad, grain elevator, farm equipment, bank
- Macune, Charles W. started
the National Colored Farmers'Alliance
- It spread all over the place.
- The growth of the alliances was proportional to the prosperity
(1880-1881) [Blizzards in 1867]
- People went back East, thus the Northwest alliance never was
big as in the south
- The alliances joined together and started supporting politicians
- They went all out in their own party, Populist,
- Direct election of senators
- government warehouses & loans
- Blacks after the Reconstruction
- States blocked blacks with poll taxes and literary tests.
- Whites boycotted black catering businesses
- Petty crimes got punishment in the criminal lease (slave)
- They lynched people for attempted rape or rape of a white
woman (this could be any behavior)
- Populists tried to create an interracial movement, but the
poor whites prefered being bigoted.
- They riled the poor whites to join the bigoted masses.
- Politicians and presidents and the courts ignored the equality
things with Civil Rights Cases (1883) and Plessy v. Ferguson (1896).
[Separate but equal.]
- Northerners were just as guilty.
- They started banks and businesses around the 1890s. The whites
had a de facto discrimination.
- The South only had the Democratic party. They sent tons of
senior senators so that they got seniority and had a good influence,
mainly reactionary, to maintain power.
- The 1890s: Politics in a Depression
- 1892: Cleveland Revisited
- Socialism in Europe scares the US
- Populists are seen as radicals
- Growing unrest with strikers getting violent
- The Panic of 1893
- The railroads collapsed
- The gold was strained because of the Sherman Silver Purchase
- Tariffs were reduced to get rid of the surplus
- The Depression 1893-1897
- 20% unemployed
- Prices dropped by half
- Coxey, Jacob wanted the government
to start a work program with "legal tender," money without
backing. He started an "army" and went to Washington
and got arrested
- Defending the Gold Standard
- Cleveland used laissez-faire
- He defeated the gold drain by getting a loan from Bankers
and also offering bonds. He got rid of the Sherman Silver Purchase
- They made the Wilson-Gorman Tariff which started a 2% income
tax for those making over $4,000. This was repealed by the Supreme
- People thought Cleveland didn't act enough and wanted a stronger
- The Watershed Election of 1896
- 1894: Repudiation of Cleveland
- The Republicans got all as the Democrats sucked
- The Silver Issue
- This became a class issue in disguise.
- Gold people knew about inflation
- Silver people felt the tight economy
- Silver Advocates Capture the Democratic Party
- After Cleveland, the party adopted the silver platform.
- They nominated William Jennings Bryan a great orator.
- The Populists endorsed Bryan, seeing a split vote, but nominated
their own vice president
- 1896: McKinley Triumphant
- McKinley slammed Bryan and spoke little. They swamped money
to the campaigns and McKinley won.
- Bryan had only worked the plains and the South.
- The urbanites worked for McKinley and they kept gold and saw
- They did some cools stuff at sea.
- Digression: Chicago in the 1890s
- Brothels, saloons, slaguter houses, agricultural machinery
- 1893 - Columbian Exposition
- Depression in 1893
- 1896 Democratic convention
- Expansionist Stirrings and War with
- Roots of Expansionist Sentiment
- Businesses wanted to gain markets
- People wanted an empire like the Europeans
- Religious people wanted to spread the word of God
- There was a conflict with Chile (killed 2 unarmed marines
on shore leave)
- There was a conflict with Britain (Venezula)
- Pacific Expansion
- Americans wanted Samoa for a fueling port, they almost clased
with Germany 1889 and established a triple protectorate.
- Hawaii was important since the
1830s. They had monopoly on sugar, but lost it, had a grouchy
queen. Dole revolted and got the US to annex it (1897).
- Crisis over Cuba
- There was a revolution where the US had invested a lot in
- The Journal and the World
newspapers in New York sensationalized the conflict.
- The Spanish called McKinley weak.
- USS Maine sinks (2-15-1898)
starting the war (4-11-1898)
- The Spanish-American War
- They got Manila, Philippines.
- They blockaded Santiago Cuba and destroyed the Spanish fleet
- Conditions at bases were horrible
- They got Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam, and recognized Cuban
- Deeping Imperialist Ventures: The
Philippines, China, and Panama
- The Platt Amendment
- This was written to prevent Cuba from making treaties and
got the US naval bases.
- US investment rose
- US occupied Cuba more than as specified in the treaty
- Guerrilla War in the Philippines
- The US aided the rebels in the islands to hurt the Spainish
- The islanders felt betrayed when the US got the islands
- The US crushed the rebellion
- The Congress made the Philippine Government act of 1902 where
they would slowly become independent (1946)
- Critics of the Empire
- Mark Twain, Jane Addams, and William James followed William
Bryan in the Anti-Imperialist movement.
- They tried but failed to stop the treaty with Spain (1899)
- The Open Door Notes and the Boxer Uprising
- Initially they sent this note in 1896 to protect US trade
interests as other nations were negotiating deals which gave them
- There was little US investlment, but it began the global economy
- In 1899 the Boxers killed foreigners and Christians. The US
gave troops to the international force
- Building the Panama Canal
- They bought $40 million rights from a French company that
helped build the Suez Canal.
- They got rejected by the Columbian Senate. They made Panama
declare independence in 1903.
- They got their land to build the canal
- With the Panama Canal, the US was part of the world.
- There was limited government in the domestic world.
- Farmers and workers didn't like government.
- Party Politics,
1870-1890s, from Stalemate to Crisis
- mediocre presidents - high voter turnout
- local politics most improtant
- political machines
- close elections
- Gold v. Silver
- More money if coin silver
- Gold keeps inflation lower
- 16 : 1 value ratio
- Gold was flooding in from the West, Silver value went up and
Gold went down
- Coinage Act (1873) - demonitized
silver, no longer could back up dollar with silver - the "crime
of 1873'' - closed money supply
- Silver comes from West and depreciates - silver campaign (1880s,
- free silver supported by debtors, farmers, and silver mines
- class warfare between creditors and debtors
- tight money system - high interest rates, low inflation
- loose money system - low interest rate, high inflation
- Gold standard remains
- Patronage & Spoils
- Gives jobs to supporters (100,000 positions)
- People try to change - civil service reform - Pendleton
Civil Service Act, 1883
- Pensions (to Union Civil War Veterans)
- Before New Deal
- Used the surplus
- Democrats and farmers were against
- Republicans for it
Constituency Business community, bankers, Immigrants, Catholics
employers Southern Whites
Norther old stock - Protestants, Western Farmers
Nativist elements & anti-temperence
Presidents Hayes (1876-1880) Cleveland (1884-1888,
Garfield & Arthur (1880-1884) 1892-1896)
Table 2: Major Parties
Crisis of the 1890s
- Populists Party
- Sounds like Communites Manifesto
- Tried to get both the workers and the farmers
- They want
- Civil Service Reform
- Silver Coinage
- Graduated income tax
- Lower taxes
- Government bank
- Information and Transportation Infrastructure absorbed into
- Direct election of Senators
- Politics & Culture in the 1890s
- Rift between industry and agriculture
- Results in later progressivism
- Panic of 1893 & Depression
- Larger than 1873
- Continues to 1901
- Railroads shutdown, cascading through the rest of the industries
- Lack of confidence in the dollar
- Worldwide depression, foreigners pull out of US
- 25% job loss
- 8000 businesses 100s of banks fail
- Roaming jobless vagrants, "Coxey's Army"
- marched to Washington, wanted the New Deal
- Pullman strike (1894) -
support by American Railroad Union,
shutdown all Pullman cars - Eugene V. Debs - invoked Sherman
- Campaign of 1896
- William McKinley - Republican
- William Jennings Bryan - Democrat
- adopt pro-Silver platform
- makes "Cross of Gold" Speech
- Clearly for the agrian interests and businesses were scared
- Republicans win
- 1897 Dingley Tariff - raises protective tariff to the highest
level in US history
- 1900 - Gold Standard Act - infux of gold solves the Panic
- Philosophy: Pragmatism
- American response to German idealism
- German idealism - Hegel, Hegelian dialectic
- Observes society today, stay practical
- Solving problems today!
- Literature: naturalism & realism
- They addressed taboo topics
- Started in journalism then turned writers
- Trend to muckraking
- William Dean Howells
- Theodore Dreiser
- Stephen Crane
- Jack London
- The Progressive Era
- There was a major factory fire where 141 died.
- Large corporations became too powerful.
- People sought reform, but this reform was different from previous
reforms in that the people wanted more government.
- A Changing American Society and Economy
- Immigrants and new business saw workers pooling together.
- Immigrant Masses and a New Urban Middle Class
- Tons of people immigrated because they were persecuted and
they wanted to escape from persecution and economic mess ups.
- Cities couldn't keep up.
- The white collars doubled and the professional organizations
split and women urbanites got work.
- Black Americans in a Racist Age
- Blacks had a bad time as cotton failed.
- They had legal segregation on all fronts. They were prevented
from coting and had little influence.
- The immigrants discriminated against them and they got lynched.
- They had their own separate culture
- Corporate Boardrooms and Factory Floors
- Companies merged and formed huge conglomerates.
- Workers got cheap stuff, but they had no money to buy stuff
- Most girls had to work and factories didn't take any accident
- Workers Organize; Socialism Advances
- They started organizing, but the boss could just fire them
off and hire immigrants.
- Their skills often set them apart.
- There was the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union
(ILGWU) which striked.
- There were the courts against them and the police.
- Eventually they got radical enough like the socialists and
they actually got 900,000 votes.
- The Progressive Movement Takes Shape
- Progressivism: An Overview
- Formed as a result of industrial society as a populist movement
- Was a collection of eclectic things which conflicted
- started by private organizations
- Intellectuals Lay the Groundwork
- Intellectuels satirized the gilded age.
- People like Bellamy, Turner, Veblen
- New Ideas About Educaction and the law
- With bigger public schools intellectuals could influence society
- "public good"
- got rid of the laissez-faire policies
- Novelists and Journalists Spread the Word
- There were books like Wealth Against Commonwealth and
- There were McClure's, Cosmopolitan, and Everybody's
magazines that got the muckrakers' prose
- Reforming the Political Process
- The machines went away in the 1890s. There was the Reuf machine
case where the machine killed the proscecuter but they got a replacement
and jailed them
- The utilities were taxed, regulated to put them on equal ground.
- Everyone was involved
- Elections were changed to make it harder to rig
- Reforming Society and City
- They established work controls
- Child labor and women got regulated as well as safety and
- Urban beautification and effeciency also become important
- Coporate Regulation
- La Follette, governor of Wisconsin, regulated business and
- He made libraries so that legislators didn't have to hear
- Progressivism and Social Control:
The Movement's Coercive Dimension
- Moral Control in the Cities
- There was a banning of dance halls, amusment parks, gambling
- Movie censorship started as the nickel eight-minute movies
- They also launched the anti-prostitute campaigns and books
helped out with propaganda.
- The Prohibition Movement
- The ASL (Anti Saloon League) changed temeperence into abolition
- They got the eighteenth amendment doing so in 1919.
- Immigration Restriction
- They saw this as the cause of many problems.
- They thought of them as little schooled and the AFL supported
- Eugenics Movement
- They tried to control and breed humans like animals.
- Sex offenders and disfunctional people were castrated.
- It was taken out of hand by Grant to discriminate against
Jews, Blacks, Southern and Eastern Europeans.
- Racism and Progressivism
- They thought that other races were sources of problems not
- Some people supported the blacks but they were ignored.
- Class: Progressive Movement
- This is not as much a movement as an impulse or current.
- It was not cohesive or unified.
- Made up with:
- Upper middle class reformers - in urban areas
- Target - injustices of the industrial urban society
- Anti-monopoly impulse - uncontrolled growth of big business
- Social Legislation - child and women labor laws; worker;immigrant
- Thinks there is a lack of cohesion in United States
- Faith in technology and science
- increased intervention by state and federal authorities -
- political reforms - makes democracy more responsive
- Blacks and Women Organize
- Controversy in Black America
- Washington, Booker T.
though they should accept what they have and will eventually
- Wells-Barnett, Ida though
Blacks should be more active.
- Du Bois, W. E. B. thought
they should have full educations.
- The Founding of the NAACP
- This was formed in the 1890s as the Afro-American Council
which soon came under control of Washington.
- Du Bois formed the Niagara Movement which would become the
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
- Revival of the Woman-Sufferage Movement
- There was the National American Women Sufferage Association
- This was generally opposed.
- Only in 1917 did New York alow women to vote.
- They went militant and got arrested.
- This amendment passed in 1919 and ratified 1920.
- Breaking Out of the "Woman's Sphere"
- Women started speaking and giving lectures.
- Their clubs started cleaning up playgrounds and streets.
- Birth Control was born.
- Child labor was killed and research about lead poisoning also
was lead by women.
- National Progressivism -- Phase I:
Roosevelt and Taft
- Roosevelt's Path to the White House
- He took over after McKinley's assasination.
- He didn't really want to be Vice-President, but the politcal
machines forced him in.
- He wanted a strong government.
- Roosevelt the Labor Movement
- He forced the miners and the mines to listen to him.
- He made them get arbitration.
- Trustbusting and Corporate Regulation
- He killed the Northern Securities Company,
a railroad holding firm, because it had too many advantages.
- He called for a square deal.
- He wanted big companies not to have special interests.
- Sucked up to big business with nice letters.
- Regulated railroads with the Hepburn Act
(1906) and the Elkins Act (1903,
- Consumer Protection and Racial Issues
- The Jungle (1906) by Upton Sinclair scared the public.
- Roosevelt passed the Pure Food and Drug Act
and the Meat Inspection Act
in 1906. These were supported by the companies to gain public
- He tried to get blacks in, but yielded to public opinion.
He met with Booker T. Washington.
- The Conservation Movement
- People liked nature because the cities sucked.
- Congress allowed the President to set apart land in 1891.
- Conservation entered politices every where.
- Roosevelt got Pichot to the U. S. Forest Service
- There was the Sierra Club, Boy
Scouts, and Girl Scouts.
- He got the development planned through the National Reclamation
Act of 1902.
- Congress got rid of Presidental power to name national forests,
which Roosevelt signed after designating 21 new ones.
- National Park Service
- They protected antiquities and addressed pollition
- Taft in the White House
- He easily won the election with Roosevelt's endorsement.
- The Republicants wanted control.
- Taft continued Roosevelt policy.
- A Divided Republican Party
- Progressives and Conservative Republicans fought on the tariff.
- They got rid of Joseph Cannon who blocked all reform bills
- Pichot, the conservationist US Forest Service head, got messed
by Ballinger who sold off the land.
- Roosevelt started to support more of the Democrats and came
back with more calls for regulation.
- National Progreesivism -- Phase II:
- The Four-Way Election of 1912
- Roosevelt started winnign the primaries again.
- Taft screwed him with the party machine.
- He went and formed the Progressive Party.
- He beat Taft, but the Democrats got the rests.
- Woodrow Wilson: The Scholar as President
- He was a PhD guy and had problems compromising.
- A good statesmen, but often stubborn
- Tariff and Banking Reform
- He started the lobbist investigations, this reduced tariffs.
- He also started the income tax..
- His revised banking system was the Federal Reserve Act
- This was a diffused system that would gain control later in
- Corporate Regulation
- He made the Federal Trade Commission
(FTC, 1914) and later aided it with the Clayton
Antitrust Act (1914).
- He appointed conservatives to the FTC, but also filed suits
- Labor Legislation and Farm Aid
- He made new roads withe the Federal Highway Act (1916).
- Federal Warehouse Act (1916)
- Keating-Owen Act - child labor ban
- Clayton Act - exempted labor unions from restraint of trade
- Progressivism and the Constitution
- The Supreme Court upheld the 10 hour work day for women after
hearing evidence about the messed up health of women.
- It also had spawned four amendments which shows the movement
of the era.
- 1916: Wilson Edges Out Hughes
- Roosevelt wanted to join the the Europe war so the progressives
were out of the picture.
- Hughes got the Progressive endorsement, but lost to Wilson.
- Digression: Hetch Hetchy Valley in
- This was a solution to San Francisco water.
- It was a beautiful land, named by the indians.
- It was part of Yosemite at first.
- After the earthquake and fire in 1906, they got the land.
- Roosevelt didn't really want it, but was wishy washy.
- Pinchot supported it.
- They finally passed the act with a wide margin.
- The dam was built at double the cost.
- It messed up the shoreline with mud as the level went up and
- This was a big thing.
- It slowed because of the war.
- It was clear that the government had something to do in the
- Big corporations still manipulated the government.
- They finally started combatting the industrial movement.
- Progressive Presidents
Theodore Roosevelt Woodrow Wilson
Conservation Movement: Worker protection legislation,
National Parks 1916
Creation of 16 new parks uses the ICC to prevent child
multi-use of the labor
environments mandates 8 hour work day for
U. S. Forest ServiceU. S. railroad workers
Forest Service - 1905 establishes workers compensation
Defends the labor movement Federal Reserve ActFederal Reserve
right to organize Act, 1913
arbitration - government Federal Trade CommisionFederal
works as a mediator Trade Commision, 1914
collective bargaining Oversees regulatory policies of
started by the United Mine the United States
Workers' StrikeUnited Mine
Workers' Strike (1902)
Pure Food and Drug Act
Meat Inspection Act
The Jungle by Upton Sinclair
Standard Oil - 1911
Northern Securities Company
(Northwestern Railroads) -
Good Trusts serve the people
and Bad Trusts should be
Hepburn ActHepburn Act
(1906) - authorizes
Commission (ICC) to set
Table 3: Progressive Presidents
16Amendment1 graduated income tax
6 - 1912
17Amendment1 direct election of
7 - 1913 senators
8 - 1919
19Amendment1 women's suffrage
9 - 1920
Table 4: Progressive Amendments
- State Level: Progressivism
- Referendum, Initiative, Recall
- Direct Primary Election
- Continuties under Progressivism
- Socialist Party
- founded in 1901
- Debs, Eugene V. started
- Jailed in WWI
- "Why was socialism comparitively so weak in the U.S.?"
- Better living conditions
- Labor Unions
- Have political participation
- Hated big government (socialism)
- Weak financial backing
- U.S. already had universal male suffrage
- More ethnic and racial tensions
- Industrial Worker and the World
- small membership (30,000)
- radical labor union
- founded in 1906
- centered around mining, longshoremen, and the western industries
- never afraid of violence or waging battle
- some were anarchists
- They were never really organized and had no headquarters.
- not really successful because of its radical marxism
- Haywood, William was a leader.
- It fights the AFL as well as other organized captialists
- African Americans and Progressivism
- Increase in racial hatred - one of the worst periods of race
- 1896 - Plessy v. Ferguson
- separate but equal
- Jim Crow Laws
Washington, Booker T.Washington, DuBois, W. E. B.DuBois, W. E. B.
Tuskegee InstituteTuskegee Institute National Association for the
taught people and aided them. Advancement of Colored PeopleNational
Wanted to take up jobs and accomadate Association for the Advancement of
the whites. Colored People (1909, NAACPNAACP) was a
more progressive organ and sought to
fight legal battles.
He wanted to fight the sustem and get
opportunity and civil rights.
Table 5: African Americans and Progressivism
By the early 1900s, reformers started to realize that to really
change things they would have to start lobbying and addressing
issues on a national level. The early 1900s with Theodore Roosevelt
and Woodrow Wilson, the reformers started the progressive era.
He got into office because an anarchist shot McKinley. The Republican
party thought of him as more of a common man and the Republican
bosses didn't really want him. They thought he was young and rambunctious.
He was a reform politician and was clearly weird. Republicans
tried to deactivate him. Roosevelt didn't like being vice president
and would rather be a history professor.
As he comes to office, the Republican machine is nervous. This
was a very conservative party and the pro-business wing. They
wanted to please the businessmen. Because of his style and love
for the media, he is a charismatic leader and can go against this
World War I
- Wilson tried not to get the U. S. into the war in Europe
- Roosevelt tried to keep Asia open to American
- Taft tried to get more business opportunities for America
- Defining America's World Role
- The Roosevelt Corollary
in Latin America and the Balence of Power in Asia
- 1904 - any "chronic wrongdoing" by any Latin American
nation would justify intervention by the United States
- He made sure that there was peace in China especially with
the Russian Manchuria.
- He also worked to keep US-Japan relations going decently.
- The "Great White Fleet" went to Japan and the world,
showing off US's naval strength.
- Dollar Diplomacy in China and Nicaragua
- They got dead ended in China by the Japanese and Russians
- Nicaragua demanded support for Díaz, the leader of
the collapsing government that had received quite a lot of U.
- Wilson and Latin America
- There was Mexico where another Díaz lost power.
- The US didn't like the new government and refused to recognize
- They put in their own leader but then Pancho Villa came up
and killed Americans.
- The US wanted the world to think and do like the US.
- War in Europe
- The Comming of War
- The whole of Europe had a powder keg of alliances
- There was also nationalism in Germany
- There was the perception that war is exciting
- Finally there was the bullet that killed Archduke Ferdinand
which sparked the war
- The American People's Initial Responses
- Wilson tried to keep US neutral
- Britain had educated the Americans to like them
- Germans and Irish immigrants wanted Germany to win
- The Perils of Neutrality
- Britain seized US vessels and layed mines
- Germany used U boats to sink American ships off the British
- Finally the Lusitania
- Jane Addams and women opposed the war
- Later Germans san the Arabic, and Sussex, propelling
the US to war after the US had submitted the Lusitania notes
which Germany agreed on.
- The US lent the allies a lot and thus got more interest in
- Stalemate in the Trenches
- The French and Germans were stuck in trenches
- They didn't gain anything but lost lives just staying there
with disease or gaining little ground
- The Election of 1916
- Hughes was a pacifist and criticized Wilson
- Wilson barely won (600 thousand out of 18 million votes and
23 in the electoral college)
- The United States Enters the War
- Germany began unrestricted U-Boats in 1917
- The US cut diplomatic relations and declared war - because
German attacks, US economic investments, and cultural links
- Mobilizing at Home, Fighting in France
- Raising an Army
- No veterans
- 2 days of ammo
- only 200,000 men
- started the draft, fortunately, there was no Civil War anti-draft
- by 1918, 24 million registered
- training was brief
- a biased IQ test was given
- men got a taste of the world
- Organizing the Economy for War
- Council of National Defense
prepared the government
- War Industries Board
(WIB, 1917) coordinated logistics
- WIB succeeded under Baruch, Bernard
- It standardized and cut excess to build the US armed forces
- Daylight Savings Time
- Hoover, Herbert ran the Food Administration and had a volenteer
food rationing program
- The US government ran thousands of programs under the President
(Overman Act, 1918)
- It ran a Labor board and took over the railroads when they
- The businesses pitched in with advisors and prowar propaganda
- Anti-trust measures were suspended to improve war efforts
- With the AEF in France
- American Expeditionary Force
(AEF) was formed in 1917-1918 with 2 million
Americans, lead by German, Pershing, John J.
- YMCA, Red Cross, Salvation Army, as well as young American
women tried to keep a touch of home
- There was tons of wartime propaganda: "A German bullet
is cleaner than a whore."
- There were aerial surveillance and dogfights, the US only
built 37, one of the failures of US war production
- There were tons of losses at sea and on land
- Russia was unstable as it had its revolution (1917)
- There was the bolshevik armed coup that ended Russia in the
- They tried to keep AEF separate but unified after the Somme
- The allies stopped them at Château-Thierry.
- Turning the Tide
- They closed off a German salient (a bulge in the line).
- There was a flu and rain created tons of mud.
- The US was assigned to penetrate three trenches and cut off
- Blacks in the AEF
- There was racial hatred and the military sought to give blacks
the worst position.
- They worked mainly as aids, messboys, and porters, unloading
- The 92nd and the 369th saw combat and were awarded French
commendations for bravery
- The French treated them somewhat the same, which was different
from the Americans
- Promoting the War and Suppressing
- Advertising the War
- The propaganda made everyone less tolerent
- They made new advertising positions
- They sold bonds to give the allies loans
- Government debt grew 27 times during the 5 years
- They used income taxes and estate taxes
- Committtee on Public Information
(CPI) ran movies, news, and ads to publicize
the government's idea of right
- They made 75,000 propaganda speakers and made labor movements
to support the war
- Intellectuals, Cultural Leaders, and Reformers Present Arms
- Teachers supported the war
- People wrote about it glorifying it
- The muckrakers joined and wrote for the war
- Progressivists joined the war in hopes of later peacetime
- Wartime Intolerance and Hysteria
- Everyone started to hate everything german
- Music took a dive as German composers were left out
- They hated pacifists and "traitors"
- Opponents of the War
- German Americans
- There were the conscientious Objectors (COs) who were abused
- Addams, Jane also opposed
- Women tried to still get suffrage and to get feminist ideas
into the war effort
- They thought that one could not control the large war for
- Indeed, they saw that the war unleased American intolerence
- Suppressing Dissent by Law
- The government wrote the Espionage Act
- They arrested anyone who spoke against the government
- The Postmaster held anti-war publications
- Supreme court upheld Espionage Act sentences
- It was now fear that silenced the dissenters
- Economic and Social Trends in Wartime
- Boom Times in Industry and Agriculture
- the economy boomed
- there was the no strike policy
- people joined unions anyway
- the government go the 8 hour work day
- Agriculture benefited (doubled prices)
- Blacks Migrate Northward
- The north, having no more immigrants tried to get the southern
- They thought they would get better jobs
- the south tried to stop the exodus
- they got the same old treatment from whites
- Women and the War
- Women served in the military and volunteered
- They worked in factories
- Sufferage movement gained ground (1920, 19th passed)
- Labor Board tried to keep Female and Male wages equal, but
they were normally less
- When the war ended, womene were kicked out
- Moral Reform in Wartime
- prohibition noted that the germans consumed a lot of beer
- they also closed brothels and had anti-prostitution stuff
(YWCA helped too)
- The New Orleans brothels, hosting jazz closed making jazz
move up north
- Digression: Bridgeport, Connecticut,
- Expansion due to war
- It was the home of P. T. Barnum
- It had a harbor and factories.
- It made munitions and started submarines
- People hired like crazy (one every ten minutes)
- People didn't like the U. S. munitions were killing people
- Singles started flooding in.
- Utilities couldn't cope.
- Housing was high in demand and existing units were multiplexed
with three eight hour shifts
- New housing was not build because the war might not have lasted
- They had to provide entertainment
- Labor disputes started up
- America and the Great War
- Neutrality: international trading
- economic interests: fear of losing markets; loans to allies,
France, and Great Britain
- Wilson's missionary zeal
- German U-Boat war, killing Americans
- Culture & sympathy for the allies
- Germany sends the Zimmermann Telegram (1917) - Mexico recover
their old territories
- May 1917 Selective Service Act
- 3 million drafted
- 15 million volunteered
- 300,000 African Americans
- AEF - April 1918
- stops Germany from attacking & started offensive
- cut supply lines
- secured the Atlantic
- Wilson tried to keep a good peace and influenced Germany to
- Wilson was a hero and the US was really world power
- End of War - Nov. 1918
- Paris Conference - Dec. 1918
- Wilson part of council of four
- US couldn't get the 14 points
- League of Nations - forerunner of the UN (all other points
were dropped); defeated by the Senate
- Joyous Armistice, Bitter Aftermath
- Wilson's Fourteen Points
- He got the intellecuels to discuss the peace.
- Liberal support after he adopted the stand
- Free trade
- open treaties
- colonial stability
- "a general association of nations"
- 1918 - They got a armistice on the 14 points
- Nov 11, 1918, 11 am, guns stopped
- AEF disbanded
- The Versailles Peace Conference
- Wilson did this himself (a mistake)
- An elderly Republican (no influence)
- Europeans were vindictive
- 1919 - Peace treaty imposes reparations, blame, loss of land
- Intervension in Russia to overthrow Lenin
- The Fight over the League of Nations
- The Senators rejected the whole treaty, because they didn't
want to kill parts of it
- He went all over the country speaking for it
- He got a stroke and was moody
- His doctor and wife did a lot of covering up
- The Senate was divided into the rejects, revise significantly,
and the democrats, who Wilson stubbonly told to vote against the
- Racism and Red Scare
- There was a lot of racial violence
- They hated bolshevism
- They mailed bombs
- People lynched blacks
- Strikers were called commies
- they deported Russians
- There were no search warrants
- They eventually got their sense when a bomb killed 38 in New
- The election of 1920
- They ran Cox-FDR against Harding.
- The nation split, being drained from the war
- Harding won
- The war cost a lot for people in and out of the front
- There was new technology
- Radical fear set in and stopped progressivism
- The US went into the center of world politics
Documents -- March 17, 1997
The government has been now medling with the internal affairs
of the states. Something that the Democratic party never wanted
but now does. The congress approved amendments for prohibition
and women's suffrage that cut across party lines. They were partially
motivated by the war. Prohibition could be a sectional conflict
and a violation of rights. Some papers argued against the papers,
taking the stand where it should not become law. They also called
into question how quickly public sentiment has changed.
This article dealt with the race tensions in an objective manner
(October 1919). IT lists Race Prejudice, Economic Competition,
Political Corruption and Exploitation of Negro Voters, Police
Inefficiency, Newspaper Lies about Negro Crime, Unpunished Crimes
Against Negroes, Housing, and Reaction of Whites and Negroes from
The blacks now should get freedom after the US has won WWI. They
should practice primal rights of self-preservation. It calls for
fighting back and dying honorably.
The articles give too much emphasis on the bombs mailed even though
they might not be from the Bolsheviks anyways. They think the
communists are calling an unprecedented war and terrorism. They
begin a witch hunt for people associated with the communists.
The bolsheviks published to get the truth out to the people.
WWI & Its Aftermath
The impact of WWI included an increase in production and get an
army. Government took more control of industries to keep stuff
flowing. The made the war industries board
(WIB) under Baruch.The
allocate and designate quotas for people. The WIB sets important
pattern for the new deal and shows the increasing importance of
the federal government.
People got riled with propaganda. The Committee on Public Information
(CPI) headed the propaganda literature. Postwar,
the propaganda backfired and felt cheated by the propagandists.
Labor is recognized and the government formed the National
War Labor Board (1918)
which makes the employers listen to the employees.
WWI was a high point of the Progressive Era and it provides models
for future politicians. Amendments like Women's Suffrage and prohibition
passed only as war measures.The socialists are destroyed. Progressive
Era died because the dissenters were crushed. The focus went to
the reforms. The war's begining has stopped the Progressive Movements.
The reforms that were started just coast through.
The supermarket chains swallowed up smaller owners. Industrialization
further prevaded the everyday life of people. There were still
conflicts that stimulated debade, growth, and change.
A New Economic Order
In the decade of prosperity, consumer goods, especially with the
electrification of America, multiplied rapidly. There was a brief
recession as a result of sudden demobilization of troops used
in the war. US consumers demanded color cars and got it. Car production
jumped with registrations. Businesses expanded overseas.
With new modes of producing, managing, and selling, saw new management
and the production line called Fordism. Management
consolidated and nationalized with professional managers at work.
There were dealers and chaines with radio advertising. They tried
to create an image of elegence to the adveristments. People and
the press started to look toward businessmen.
Women in the new economic era had a whole new outlook. They had
more elegence as electric appliances took over menial tasks. They
still didn't work a lot more and still had wage discrimination.
Even more disturbing is that they didn't get management positions.
Organized labor in the business age had to adapt to this new production
line labor. There was segregation as well as a general loss of
power. Corporations used blacks as strikebreakers. Immigrants
faced a lot of challenges as the most menial workers
Agriculture, the economy's ailing sector, changed a lot during
this time. They faced competition with European farms and they
got into a negative feedback look where if they produced more,
the price would drop. The formed groups and asked the government
to help. The government rejected them.
Republicans in Power
There were scandals and silences during the Harding and Coolidge
years. Harding was second rate and largly unknown. It was his
stability that appealed and won the office in a landslide. He
made some good appointments and also some bad ones. The good ones
were Wallace to agriculture, Mellon to treasury, and Hoover to
commerce. There were scandals of fraud under his administration.
Coolidge was very silent unlike Harding's garrulousness. He imposed
tariffs again. He was strongly pro-business.
The age of isolationism arose again and American went to an arms
race against Britain and Japan. The US wanted its loaned money
back and didn't join any international organizations. Progressive
stirrings and democratic divisions included the FCC.
They formed the Conference for Progressive Political Action
in 1922 (CPPA). The Democrats nominated
Davis and they lost.
Women and politics in the 1920s was merely a dream. Women had
too many interests and their earlier united cause, now accomplished,
left them separate. They tried to get an equal rights amendment.
There was a general anti-femenist feeling. They tried to get more
women labor protection and child improvement.
Mass Society, Mass Culture
A nation of cities, consumer goods and automobiles had been born.
More people lived in urban areas but liked rural morality and
got them from urban TV's and radios. Housewives spent less time
doing housework. Supermarkets and fast cars made it easy to get
food. People started dying because of cars. People could got between
towns to get stuff and a new automobile suburbia developed.
Soring energy consumption and a trhreatened environment was new
concerns. There were massive amounts of fuel and electricity used.
There were new oil fields being made and roads and tons of motor
route service sprouted. Environmentalists tried to stpo this misuse.
Routinized work and mass-produced were the way of life in the
1920s. People didn't have pride or mobility in these monotonous
jobs. There was the dime novel and the magazines that came out.
Publisher started to market their books in mail order and department
stores. There were soon broadcast networks and commercial programs.There
was the movies that started at this time and became mroe standard.
Fads, celebrities, and heros all came from this new media. They
had the Miss America Pageant (1921) and Babe Ruth (1927), and
Ty Cobb. Each of these celebrities had their other less desireable
side. People found refuge by looking at these images. People liked
Lindbergh, Charles A. who
flew a nonstop solo across the Atlantic. They wanted individualism
but the mass media had exposed Americans to vast ideals and new
horizons beyond their immediate environs.
The Post War US and the 1920s
During the turnoil of 1919, the Red Scare was increased by the
1917 Russian Bolshevik Revolution. They were anti-capitalists
and this scared industrialized nations. The Soviets set up an
international network. During the summer, there were terrorist
attacks by anarchist groups which mailed bombs. The United States
responds by making the Overman Committee
in the Senate which studies the seriousness of the bolsheviks.
They also make a new division in the justice department to deal
with bolshevik radical activities. J. Edgar Hoover heads this
new justice department division. There are the "Palmer
Raids" in the 1920. Palmer, as the
attorney general, orders a massive raid on radicals. They are
deported. Civil liberties are trampled on and the ACLU,
the American Civil Liberties Union,
is founded by Baldwin, Roger to defend some of the accused.
There is labor unrest and tons of strikes occur. There is an increase
in the labor force. The industries are powering down. There is
a recession. The mediation system breaks down. They try to lower
wages and to repeal the 8 hour work day. In 1919, there was the
Seattle general strike where labor unions tried to completely
paralyze a whole city. There was also a police strike in Boston.
The textile industry is also strike ridden. The steel industry
was hardest hit since the Homestead strikes.
There were Race Riots. They occured in Washington and Chicago.
Job competition and the African American northward migration triggered
the riots. There were doubling of various Black communities. They
were very segregated. The neighborhoods expand and push against
the white suburbia. Blacks started to fight back and this made
it worse. There is tons of influenza. These conflicts are why
Wilson's League of Nations failed. People just wanted peace.
Cultural Fermant and Creativity
The Jazz Age and the post war crisis of values involved a new
sexual freedom where courtship was replaced with dating and dancing
became popular. There was bootleg liquor and loud parties that
stemed from the automobile freedom. There still was the dual sexual
initiation standard where the male leads. Women wore shorter skirts
and started using makeup. Women were almost always prohibited
or discouraged from smoking. The older people started to take
up some of the younger rebellious habits. There was the flapper
stereotype of a young joy-crazed woman. There was Held, John
who studied the Jazz Age and lived it. There was also Fitzgerald,
most famous for The Great Gatsby.
American writers of the twenties found great material in this
cultural turbulence. There was Lewis, Sinclair who wrote Main
Street and other books. There was the journalist, Mencken,
H. L., who riped on the middle class. Writers often went to places
like France. There was also Hemingway, Ernest.
Writers were mainly isolated.
Achievements in architecture, painting and music included large
buildings. They drew on the varied communities of the US. Music
and paintings reflected diverse roots. White people took Jazz
and gave it to the masses.
Creativity in Black America was enhanced by the Harlem Renaissance.
There weren't enough Black buyers for this creativity so whites
Advances in science and medicine started with the television.
Treatments for measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, and influenza
were killed off and they got neurosurgery.
A Society in Conflict
Immigration restriction was caused by the wartime patriotism.
They blocked the Asians and the East Europeans from easy access.
The Western Hemisphere, including Mexico was considered okay.
The Ku Klux Klan was revived
in 1915 after dying in the 1870s. They made a $10 membership with
$6.50 for the rob and $8 for a horse robe, and $10 for Chattahoochee
River water. All of these were requied and women were recruited
too. They actually got some governors in. They targeted racism
by locality. They wanted purity and got cohesion. It died in 1925
after a Grand Dragon raped and poisoned a secretary.
The Garvey Movement tried
to glorify everything black and return to africa. The leader was
jailed and deported and the movement lost steam.
Fundamentalism and the Scopes Trial
(1925) started when some of the protestants, who were accepting
scietific findings, broke and returned to Genesis creation and
the virgin birth of Jesus. They stopped the teaching of evolution.
The ACLU asked teachers to screw the law and Scopes did. The trial
was broadcast all over the country. Scopes was guilty according
to the local trial. Evangelists used radio and branch churches
to gather people together.
The Sacco-Vanzettic Case was
where two immigrants were fried to death because they murdered
and stole. There wer divisions in society and some people sided
with the defendents. Modern reexaminations shows a screwy case
and a probability that Sacco only was guilty.
Prohibition was a war measure,
but people started to break it. Enforcement wasn't funded enough
and people, especially the rebellious young, started to bootleg
more. People homebrewed stuff and the level which ahd dropped
to one third rose to 70%. There was a split between the liberals
and the protestants. Prohibition just got old and was repealed
Hoover at the Helm
The election of 1928 had Smith (Democrat) and Hoover. Hoover was
new to the political scene and primaried when Coolidge dropped
consideration. Hoover made long and boring speeches while Smith
was flashy. Smith, a Catholic, aslo played a role. Hoover swept
Herber Hoover's social thought dealt with corporate cooperation
and tried to smooth out the economy. He opposed direct govenrment
intervention. He had an impressive record the first few months,
but long term trends destroyed him.
They got mass culture from mass production. Consumers got tons
of new stuff and there were new social conflicts.
In terms of politics and the economy, there was a recession (1919-1921)
and more corporate mergers. National chains of stores became prominent.
Government became more pro-business, but it was most importantly
not a laissez-faire government system. They aided in the expansion
of businesses everywhere. This effort was spearheaded by the commerce
department, lead by Hoover, Herbert. The commerce building was
the biggest building in Washington.
Major industries in the new economic system were personal appliances
industry. Automobile industries started up and exploded, spawning
construction, transportation, oil, steel, and rubber. There are
26 million motor vechicles in 1929, resulting in a 1 to 5 ratio
to people. The last industry was the construction industries.
This is when the skyscrapers were made. The suburbs expand with
The consumer society and mass culture gains momentum during the
1920s. There are the networks and radio. There are chains and
supermarkets. There are new things like display windows and public
relation gimmicks like Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade. New finance
schemes, like installment buying, charge accounts, gain acceptence.
Advertising industry start to get endoresements and peer pressure
with glamour. Color ads start up in many magazines. They start
using words like "halitosis" (bad breath), "bormodosis"
(sweaty feet), "acidosis" (heartburn), "homotosis"
(lack of attractive home furniture). They push the ensemble style
where everything should match. Movies and television start making
stars. Movie palaces, extravagant theathers, started being built.
The cinema became a melting point for all classes.
Politics and Society in the 1920s
This is the era where the modern present day culture started to
sprout. Movie palaces encouraged the blending of all people and
promoted middle class values. Everyone does better in the 1920s.
The wealth is unequally distributed. Production increases and
everyone gets more and more income other than farmers. This is
the decade where America sheds her Victorian morality and a deemphasis
of religion and increasing secularization of life. There is widespread
advertising and college educations Over the 1920s fits the bill
that we have of the roaring 20s.
The democratic party is weak because everyone is doing well. The
democrats had split with the Progressive weakened the party. The
strongholds of the urban cities and the south are in turmoil and
they can't unify it. Prohibition and the KKK divided the party
internally. There is a welfare captialism where the business raise
wages and instill pride and loyalty.They also offer pensions and
eight hour work day. This deflates the unions and democratic party.
- KKK of the 1920s
They targeted the violation of the prohibition laws. Membership
rose to 2 million. They targeted Blacks, Catholics, Jews, and
other different people. It was a Protestant moralistic middle
class rightism. The KKK also gave a social and entertainment value.
It spread from the South to the MidWest and the West. It is a
new KKK and just as violent. It spreads further and to the non-fanatic
middle class. People feel that the country is offtrack and people
are losing their soul and values. It is temporary because the
leadership becomes corrupt.
- Fundementalism & Scopes Trial
John Scopes broke the Tennessee law against the teaching of evolution.
The ACLU defended him in the Scopes Trial.
William Jennings Bryan made a fool of himself on the witness stand.
He was found guilty and the ACLU paid the fine. This was a blow
to the fundamentalist movement.
- Harlem Renaissance
There was a sense of the "new negro." There was a new
sense of vibrancy and pride in the Black community. It was out
of touch with the Black masses. It created a lot of unique art
which inspired future African artists.
- Economic Downturn
It was a spectacular decade. Stock market crash, unpaied WWI debts,
and overspeculation all contribute to the depression. Stocks could
be bought on "leverage." You only had to put up 10%
of the stock and the bank would put most of the money on it. When
the confidence erodes, the banks get screwed and stuff collapses.
It was caused by the upper income inbalence and the overproduction
in the economy. Inflation actually outpaces disposable income.
There is no regulation in the real banking structure. There were
very poor financial system. The protective tariffs tried to prevent
downturns in other countries, but it was already a world market.
Addams, Jane, 47
American Civil Liberties Union, 53
American Expeditionary Force, 46
American Federation of Labor, 16, 20
American Railroad Union, 35
Baruch, Bernard, 45
black codes, 3
Bland-Allison Act, 29
Board of Indian Commisioners, 9
Boy Scouts, 40
Bozeman Trail, 9
Bureau of Indian Affairs, 13
Carnegie, Andrew, 14
Carpet baggers, 4
Chinese Exclusion Act, 18
Civil Rights Act of 1866, 3
Clayton Antitrust Act, 40
Coinage Act, 29, 34
Committee on Public Information, 51
Committtee on Public Information, 47
Comstock, Anthony, 23
Conference for Progressive Political Action, 52
Council of National Defense, 45
Cox, George B., 23
Coxey's Army, 35
Coxey, Jacob, 31
CPI, 47, 51
Custer, Colonel George Armstrong, 9
Dawes Act, 13
Dawes Severality Act, 10
Daylight Savings Time, 46
Debs, Eugene V., 43
Depression of 1873, 9
Depression of 1893, 35
Du Bois, W. E. B., 38
DuBois, W. E. B., 43
Edison, Thomas A., 15
Elkins Act, 39
Ellis Island, 22
Enforcement Act, 4
Espionage Act, 47
Federal Reserve Act, 40, 41, 42
Federal Trade Commision, 41, 42
Federal Trade Commission, 40
Fifteenth Amendment, 3
Five Civilized Tribes, 9
Fourteenth Amendment, 3
Freedman's Bureau, 3
Freedman's Bureau, 5
Garvey Movement, 54
Gilded Age, 9
Girl Scouts, 40
Gompers, Samuel, 20
Grange, 11, 13
Grangers laws, 11
Grantism, 6, 7
Harlem Renaissance, 56
Harris, William Torrey, 28
Haymarket Square, 17
Haymarket Strike & Riot, 20
Haywood, William, 43
Held, John, 53
Hemingway, Ernest, 53
Hepburn Act, 39, 41, 42
Homestead Act, 8, 10, 13
horizontal integration, 20
Industrial Worker and the World, 43
Interstate Commerce Commission, 14
Jay Gould, 14
Johnson, Andrew, 3
Restoration Plan, 3
Knights of Labor, 16, 20
Ku Klux Klan, 4, 54
Lincoln Plan, 2
Lindbergh, Charles A., 52
Little Bighorn, 10
Lost Cause, 15
Macune, Charles W., 30
Meat Inspection Act, 39
NAACP, 39, 43
National American Women Sufferage Association, 39
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 39,
National Colored Farmers'Alliance, 30
National Labor Union, 16, 20
National Park Service, 40
National Reclamation Act, 40
National War Labor Board, 51
New South Creed, 15
New York Society for the Suppression of Vice, 23
Northern Securities Company, 39
Overman Act, 46
Overman Committee, 53
Pacific Railroad Act, 10
Palmer Raids, 53
Panic of 1873, 6, 11
Panic of 1893, 35
Pendelton Act, 30
Pendleton Civil Service Act, 34
Pershing, John J., 46
Plessy v. Ferguson, 43
Powder River War, 10
Progressive Era, 24
Progressive Party, 40
Pullman Palace Car Company, 17
Pullman strike, 35
Pure Food and Drug Act, 39
Railroad Act, 8, 13
Railroad Strike, 9
Reconstruction Acts, 3
Rockefeller, John D., 14
Roosevelt Corollary, 44
Sacco-Vanzettic Case, 54
Salvation Army, 23
Scopes Trial, 54, 56
Sherman Anti-Trust Act, 15, 35
Sherman Silver Purchase Act, 29
Sierra Club, 40
Social Darwinism, 18
Socialist Party, 43
Tammany Hall, 23
Tenure of Office Act, 4
Timber Culture Act, 13
Transcontinental Railroad, 10, 13
Treaty of Fort Laramie, 10
Tuskegee Institute, 43
Tweed, William Marcy, 23
U. S. Forest Service, 40, 41, 42
Union League, 4
United Mine Workers' Strike, 41, 42
vertical integration, 14, 20
Wabash strike, 16
Wade-Davis Plan, 3
War Industries Board, 45, 51
Washington, Booker T., 38, 43
Wells-Barnett, Ida, 38
White League, 6
WIB, 45, 51
Woman's Chrustian Temperance Union, 28
women's sufferage, 10
Wounded Knee, 13
Yellowstone National Park, 12