MMUN Charter
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The Charter Of The Menlo Model United Nations

As Amended March 22, 1996, to remove three chapters and remove term limits


Chapter One:

Statement of Purpose

Article 1.

The Menlo Model United Nations has been established to facilitate and aid in the development of such skills as diplomacy, argument, debate, parliamentary procedure, and political science, among its members. In addition, it shall endeavor to provide these same members with a better developed understanding of the events and issues which relentlessly engulf the world, and, finally, to spread throughout the Menlo community a better understanding of the goals to which both the United Nations Charter and the Declaration of Human Rights aspire.

Article 2.
The Menlo Model United Nations shall establish a Secretariat, which shall provide such organization, funding, support, encouragement, and other such requirements as necessary to further these endeavors.

Article 3.

A faculty Advisor, duly recognized by the Menlo School Administration, shall be formally established to maintain good relations between the Secretariat and the Menlo School Administration. This Advisor shall be selected from among t he Menlo School Faculty by the Secretariat whenever the Advisory position lies empty. The Advisor shall aid also in the establishment of the United Nations' goals within the Menlo community.

Article 4.

The Menlo Model United Nations, in order to fulfill its obligations to its members, shall attend several conferences each year, provide lists of likely sources of information, hold clearly defined and accessible meetings, and attemp t to spread the goals of the United Nations among incoming students.

Article 5.

All members of the Menlo Model United Nations shall register with the Secretariat in order to facilitate both the establishment of a quorum during voting and increased membership involvement.

Article 6.

Registered members of the Menlo Model United Nations shall, to the extent of their means, spread awareness of global concerns, issues, and discussions, and of the United Nations itself.

Article 7.

Registered members of the Menlo Model United Nations shall each, during the course of each year, receive the opportunity to attend at least one convention, to attend several meetings, to be elected to office, and to vote in all deci sions, according to the rules set down herein.

Chapter Two:

The Powers of the Membership

Article 8.

The Members of the Menlo Model United Nations, hereafter abbreviated the MMUN, include all those who have registered their membership satisfactorily with a duly elected Secretariat.

Article 9.

Each member of the MMUN shall have the power, while meeting either formally or informally, to suggest any action to the Assembly of Members using the appropriate Article as justification.

Article 10.

Each member shall have the power, while meeting either formally or informally, to call for a special election in the Secretariat.

Article 11.

Every six months, all members of the MMUN shall elect a Secretariat from among its number; they may elect any member to office provided that that member is registered. The semi-annual elections shall be held on the Thursday followi ng the third Monday of February, and on the Thursday following the third Monday of September.

Article 12.

Each member of the MMUN shall have the power, while meeting formally, to vote on any action provided that (a) a quorum has been established by the Secretariat and (b) voting bloc has been commenced while the member is presen t.

Article 13.

Each member of the MMUN shall have the power, while meeting either formally or informally, to submit any resolution, amendment to a resolution, amendment to the charter, amendment to an action of the Secretariat, or any other such document, to the Chair of the Assembly for consideration by that Assembly.

Article 14.

In order to facilitate the smooth operation of the organization, all resolutions, amendments, or other such documents submitted to the Secretariat or committee chairman for the consideration of the group should ensure that the said resolution, amendment, charter amendment, or other such document has been signed by at least two other members.

Chapter Three:

The Form of a Meeting, and the Removal of Members.

Article 15.

The Menlo Model United Nations Assembly of Members shall meet at times specified by the Secretary General or his appointed Substitute, who shall be a member of the Secretariat; a meeting shall not be convened without prior esta blishment of a quorum, which shall be constituted by one third of the registered members, rounded up to the nearest single member, present and voting. If a quorum cannot be established, then a meeting may not be convened.

Article 16.

If for some reason one third of the registered members are not present at three separate and consecutive meetings, all of which have been duly scheduled such that all members are notified, then the Secretariat may vote to terminate those members who have consistently missed meetings, have shown reduced interest in the goals of the club, or have shown extended apathy toward the club. This vote may only be convened if every member of the Secretariat is present and it has been suggest ed by the Secretary General. The vote must be unanimous for each individual member scheduled for removal.

Article 17.

A Member may also be removed by his own choice, if presented to the Secretariat, and, in addition, all members graduating or leaving the school shall automatically be removed from the roll. These members may rejoin the club if they choose or if they return to Menlo.

Article 18.

Members who have been forcibly removed by the Secretariat shall remain so for three months before they may re-register. The Assembly, with a simple majority, may override the decision of the Secretariat in any such or similar matte r.

Article 19.

No member of the Secretariat may be removed from membership until the term of his office has been completed after either six months or a special election.

Article 20.

After a quorum of the MMUN has been established, a meeting may proceed. Under all circumstances, a meeting must be chaired by the Secretary General or his appointed substitute, who must be a member of the Secretariat. At lea st two members of the Secretariat must be present to establish a quorum.

Article 21.

Under this Article, the Chair of the meeting may establish either a formal or informal meeting; this should be determined by the purpose of the meeting.

Article 22.

In order to establish a voting bloc, at least one third of the members of the meeting's original quorum must be present; this establishes a voting quorum. A voting bloc may be created only during a formal meeting, alt hough documents may be submitted for consideration in any format.

Article 23.

All voting within voting bloc or without it must be by order, unless the number of members present exceeds fifty, in which case the meeting's chair may decide otherwise.

Article 24.

In order to pass a resolution or other similar document or intent, which does not require the allocation of MMUN funding or the alteration of this charter, at least fifty percent of the voting quorum, plus one, votes must be cast in favor; in the event of a tie, the document shall fail.

Article 25.

In order to pass a resolution requiring MMUN funding or other expenditure by the individual Members, at least two thirds of the voting quorum, plus one, votes must be cast in favor; in any other circumstance, the resolution shall fail.

Article 26.

In order to generate a Special Election, at least three fifths, plus one, of the voting quorum must vote in favor.

Article 27.

In order to amend this Charter or any other Resolution under consideration, at least half, plus one, of the voting quorum must vote in favor.

Article 28.

In order to Ratify this Charter, at least two thirds of the present and founding members must vote in favor; in the event of a tie, the Charter shall succeed.

Article 29.

In order to adjourn a meeting, at least half, plus one, of the original quorum must vote in favor.

Chapter Four:

The Powers of the Secretariat

Article 30.

The Secretariat's members shall be elected periodically, as described in section two. The Secretariat shall consist of five members; these are the Secretary General, the Undersecretary General, the Historian, the Treasurer, and the Parliamentarian.

Article 31.

The Secretary General shall lead the MMUN, and shall ensure that the various members of the Secretariat adequately coordinate their efforts. Furthermore, he shall have an extended capability to control the proceedings of the MMUN m eetings, and shall have the power of veto as described in a later Chapter.

Article 32.

The Undersecretary General shall assist the Secretary General in those same efforts, especially in the training of new members.

Article 33.

The Historian shall maintain a photographic and written documentary on the history of the MMUN, with adequate coverage given to all its aspects -- the Secretariat, the Assembly, the meetings, the charter, various resolutions which may have passed, research, and conference attendance.

Article 34.

The Treasurer shall, with the assistance of the Secretary General, manage the funds of the MMUN, as described in a later Chapter.

Article 35.

The Parliamentarian shall, to the best of his ability, provide research tips, ideas, and strategies to the Assembly, in addition to mediating any disputes in the MMUN system. He shall ensure that meetings are run according to the r ules set down in Chapter five.

Article 36.

The Secretariat shall have the sole power to convene meetings of the MMUN.

Article 37.

With a simple majority within the Secretariat, duly established to the satisfaction of the Assembly of Members, the Secretary General may veto any action of that Assembly, with the singular exception of a move for a special electio n.

Article 38.

Both the Treasurer and the Secretary General shall have the power of veto in any motion or resolution of the Assembly which calls for the expenditure of funds.

Article 39.

The Secretary General shall have the power of veto in any amendment of this Charter, unless it is an amendment to Chapters One or Four.

Article 40.

Any member of the Secretariat may, at any formal meeting, call for a special election of the Secretariat without a three fifths majority of the Assembly.

Article 41.

Each member of the Secretariat may, once at any time during each formal or informal meeting, make a speech, without regard to the rules of debate, with a maximum time limit of five minutes, declaring his opinion on any specific deb ate topic. However, the Chair may not exercise this privelege unless he first gives the powers of the chair to a co-chair, at which point he may exercise this authority. Furthermore, only two members of the Secretariat may use this power at a given meetin g, and each attempt to use the privelege may be refuted by the Assembly with a simple majority. Note, in addition, that this privelege may never be exercised once the assembly has entered voting bloc.

Article 42.

The members of the Secretariat may never create any classified documents without the express approval of all members of the MMUN, and the minutes of any meeting of the Secretariat or the MMUN Assembly must be made readily an d publicly available, to the full satisfaction of the members.

Article 43.

The Advisor of the MMUN, as described in Chapter one, shall have no direct powers in the Secretariat, but may at any time make recommendations to the Secretariat or the assembly, regardless of the status of the quorum. Howev er, the Advisor may never make any type of recommendation during voting bloc, and the Secretariat may ask this Advisor to leave when the MMUN enters voting bloc; the members may curtail this privelege with a simple majority.

Article 44.

The Secretariat has the power to remove members, as described in Chapter three.

Article 45.

The Secretariat may make no act without the approval of the Secretary General; this shall be termed the "General Veto."

Article 46.

Every twelve months, there shall be a general audit of MMUN expenditures. The Secretary General, with the approval of the Secretariat, shall appoint two auditors by January 1st, and these auditors shall complete their audit before the general Secretariat Elections on or before the third Tuesday of February of each year, such that the results of the audit may be considered by the members of the MMUN prior to the Secretariat Elections on the Thursday following the third Monday in Feb ruary.

Article 47.

All members of the Secretariat shall have the power to register members of the MMUN, and the Secretary General must responsibly care for the Directory of Members, which shall consist of a list of all current and past members, prope rly marked into their various groups, to the satisfaction of the various members of the MMUN.

Chapter Five:


Article 48.

Each MMUN meeting may be declared by the Secretariat either "Formal" or "Informal" as prescribed in chapter four.

Article 49.

The Formal Meeting
(i) Parliamentary procedure and the C-Rules are required for every action.
(ii)Members of the MMUN may not leave the room after a voting quorum has been established.
(iii) The Chair may establish voting bloc whenever a voting quorum has been established.
(iv) The Chair may pass his authority to only one pre-defined Co-Chair.
(v) Members of the MMUN may speak only when granted permission by the chair.
(vi)All members of the quoru m may ask a Point of Information at any time, regardless of any other obligations which may be in effect.
(vii) If the Chair feels that any member is not acting appropriately, he may expel that member, provided that a majority of the establi shed quorum supports the action.

Article 50.

The Informal Meeting
(i) Parliamentary Procedure is not required; members may speak whenever appropriate.
(ii) Members of the MMUN may leave or enter the meeting at any time, as long as a quorum is always present; if a quorum is no longer present, the Chair may adjourn the meeting.
(iii) The Chair may pass his authority to any MMUN member.
(iv) A voting block may never be established, unless the Chair temporarily moves to a formal meeting.
(v) A Point o f Information may be called whenever appropriate.
(vi) The Advisor may speak whenever appropriate.
(vii) If the Chair finds any action inappropriate, he may not expel, but only reprimand, the offender.

Article 51.

The purpose of any special election is only to ensure that all the positions of the Secretariat are adequately filled; this option should never be utilized for a thirst for power, petty dislike, or other such unlikely and illogical issues. Only if a member of the Secretariat has shown tremendous ineptitude should such a drastic move be taken. The intention of the special election must never be the aggrandizement of a particular party, but, rather, the interest of the MMUN as a whole.

Article 52.

The purpose of the power to remove members is simply the protection of the integrity of the MMUN; should the roll list become too long to allow the formation of a quorum, a meeting might never be held. The Secretariat must n ever use this power for personal or factional concerns, but only for the protection of the entire membership.

Article 53.

At the disgression of the Chair, P-rules, as defined by the Berkeley Model United Nations, will be used at all meetings.

Chapter Six:


Article 54.

In any amendment or any other document, this Charter shall be referred to as the "MMUN Charter", and any specific section may be referred to as "MMUN Charter, Section One," and any specific item of a section may be referred to as "MMUN Charter, Section One, Item I(i)". Another numbering system, devised in this edition of the Charter, is composed of a list of articles 86 in all, of which this is the 84th, and by this 'official' system, an item may be reffered to as "MMUN Charter , Article 1".

Article 55.

This Charter specifies and to some degree delimits the powers of the various organs of the MMUN, and furthermore specifies the purpose and ideals of the same. Thus, on this twenty-third day of February, 1995, do the various signato ry Members ratify this Charter, equally authentic in all current representations, in all electronic, digital, and paper formats, and furthermore pledge to adhere to the concepts and ideal set forth in Chapter One.

Article 56.

DONE this day at Menlo School, in Atherton, California.